Appendices Q to V

Diverse reference material and analysis of the love of the Almighty and Yahooshua for those who serve Yah, my understanding regarding Yahooshua has changed significantly since then, extracts from the Final Quest by Rick Joyner, some references to the curse of the law, extracts from the book "After Polygamy was made a Sin -- the Social History of Christian Polygamy" with particularly interesting information about Martin Luther's view on a man marrying more than one woman

Appendices Q to V



The following article was published in the October 1999 issue of Joy Magazine, Box 377, Merrivale 3291, South Africa, email: The article is titled "WOW! So that's how Jesus loves me!" and was written by John & Helen Gardiner. This article came to my attention in January 2000 and confirmed and amplified much of what is written in section 9.g, page 29 and elsewhere in this book. It gives a wonderful summary of why the subject of this book is so important and, while the author's of this article clearly do not yet have the revelation contained in this book, it is apparent that what is contained in this article and what is contained in this book are, of necessity, complimentary in Yahweh's scheme of things.

"THE Lord began speaking to us recently about marriage - and giving us some understanding of why so many marriages are in a mess or out of order, and even why so few Christian marriages are what they could be.

Daily we seem to hear of people suffering the most terrible abuse and unhappiness and fear within marriages, and hear of more and more Christian marriages ending in the cataclysm of divorce.

Something that God purposed to be one of His greatest sources of joy and blessing to people often ends up as a curse and misery.

The Lord began to reveal that the reason why marriage is under such incredible attack is because of what He meant it to be.

You see, God purposed marriage to be a prophetic sign and a wonder.

Yet the enemy so often succeeds in making it a laughing stock instead of a prophetic signpost that points the way to something much deeper.

Ephesians 5:21-33 says: "Submit to one another out of reverence for Christ. Wives, submit to your husbands as to the Lord. For the husband is the head of the wife as Christ is the head of the church, his body, of which he is the Saviour."

"Now as the church submits to Christ, so also wives should submit to their husbands in everything. Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her to make her holy, cleansing her by the washing with water through the word, and to present her to himself as a radiant church, without stain or wrinkle or any other blemish, but holy and blameless."

"In this same way, husbands ought to love their wives as their own bodies. He who loves his wife loves himself. After all, no-one ever hated his own body, but he feeds and cares for it, just as Christ does the church - for we are members of his body."

"For this reason a man will leave his father and mother and be united to his wife, and the two will become one flesh.' This is a profound mystery - but I am talking about Christ and the church. However, each one of you also must love his wife as he loves himself, and the wife must respect her husband."

Paul says this is a great or profound mystery he's speaking about. The only other great or profound mystery is found in 1 Timothy 3:16 "And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached to the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory."

Whenever scripture speaks of a mystery, it is something that can only be understood by divine revelation - how much more so a great mystery? However, these mysteries are something God wants us to understand - because if we don't, the enemy will run riot in that area of ignorance in our lives.

So Paul is saying, "When I'm talking about marriage, I'm talking about Christ and the church." He is saying that every time you look at a Christian marriage you should be able to say: "A-ha - so that's how Jesus loves His church, and that's how we as the church should respond to Him!

Marriage was made by God to be a sign that shows the world how much Jesus loves His church. Yet how many of us can say we've seen even a handful of marriages in our lifetimes that have been this?

Marriages where you look at the way the husband loves his wife, and you can say "Wow! That's how Jesus loves me as part of his church." Or you look at the wife and are able to say "Yes, I see now, I understand now how I as a Christian need to submit to Jesus in love."

Because this man and this woman have painted a prophetic picture for you, you now have a greater understanding of this great mystery!

Now do you begin to see why satan hates marriage - and especially Christian marriages - with such a passion?

Why he will do everything within his power to pervert, make a mockery of, and destroy marriages? Because every time he does that he's not just causing misery in the lives of the people concerned, he is also destroying and pulling down something that God purposed to be a prophetic signpost.

When there are problems in a marriage, you're not just dealing with difficult people, you're dealing with all the hoards of hell trying their utmost to make a mockery of a prophetic statement that God wanted to make.

Those who are in difficult marriage situations, or who have areas of their marriage that are out of order, must wake up to this truth. It's not just that you and your spouse cannot get along with each other - it's also because you have powerful demonic forces working against your marriage becoming a prophetic sign and statement!

You need to start pulling down those demonic strongholds over your relationship. Not just in your spouse! But strongholds in you and over your relationship that cause both of you to react and allow friction and division to rush in.

Every area of marriage was purposed to be a prophetic sign. If you want to understand what idolatry does to the heart of God, then look at what sexual infidelity does to a marriage.

If you want to gain a clearer understanding of what it does to God when we have other gods other things that elicit our love and devotion - then look at what adultery does to a marriage. It's a prophetic sign!

You will often find in a marriage the same extremes as you find in the church. Lust in marriage is the same as spiritual licentiousness in the church - the same as just binging and going overboard on grace with no boundaries.

Then, at the other end of the scale you get frigidity in marriage - which is the same as legalism and a religious spirit in the church - cold, hard, truth with no love.

You often get these two forces at work in the same marriage, just as you get them at work in the church, and they're both just as destructive. Lust in a marriage and licentiousness in the church are just as destructive as frigidity in marriage and legalism in the church.

You also find rebellion and reaction against God's order and authority are a problem in both marriage and in the church. Just as you also get domination, manipulation and control both in marriage and in the church.

We have got to start waking up to what marriage is meant to be, and why so pitifully few are what they should be!

People get married so lightly without really understanding what they're doing. Few people who go into marriage realise they are entering into something that was meant to be a blood covenant.

This is why virginity is so important.

God's purpose for marriage was that on the wedding night the marriage covenant would be sealed with blood. Again, this is a prophetic picture of Jesus' blood covenant with us. Yet how many marriages are that today?

We want to say to any young people (both male and female!) reading this: Your virginity is one of the most precious gifts God has given you. Don't ever let the devil snatch it away from you.

In biblical times if a man took away a woman's virginity they stoned him to death. Nowadays, they label him a superstud or a loverboy or something like that!

God purposed marriage to be a blood covenant, and it is our firm belief that if you have two people entering into a marriage as virgins, and with an understanding of the awesomeness and sacredness of what they're doing on their wedding night, then God will honour that covenant and protect that marriage supernaturally. If those getting married are not virgins, they at least need to have an understanding of this awesome covenant relationship they're entering into.

God cannot fully bless and anoint and rebuke the devourer over many marriages today because they were never established on the foundation of covenant. People went through all the man-made rituals of the wedding ceremony, but never entered into a true covenant with each other.

If you look at the average wedding ceremony today, much of what goes on has its roots in the occult.

The veil was originally believed to ward off evil spirits. Confetti was also originally purposed to chase away evil spirits. Tradition has it that it's bad luck for the groom to see the bride before the wedding ceremony, and that it is good luck for the bride to wear something old, something new, something borrowed and something blue. Then there's the whole ritual of catching the garter and bouquet and the lucky souls who catch them.

The average wedding table is filled with lucky horseshoes or wishbones, and then the lucky couple are sent on their way to the strains of "Wish me luck as you wave me goodbye..."

All this "good luck" is just a smokescreen to distract people away from the real meaning of the ceremony - that it was meant by God to be a time of two people cutting covenant with each other before their God.

The average wedding ceremony today is a total mockery of what God intended. You get two people who've been sleeping together for years going through a silly little ritual that has no real binding upon their souls. And then people wonder why the whole thing ends up in the divorce courts two years down the road!

God wants us to begin to understand the sacredness of marriage.

If you look at what marriage entailed in biblical times, you begin to understand just how much points to Jesus - and why Jesus even said some of the things He said.

At marrying age, the young man might be attracted to a young woman, or his parents might have chosen an appropriate bride for him. The procedure could be followed by one of three different parties:

The father making the arrangements for his son, as Samson's father did for him in Judges 14: 1-10.

An agent working on behalf of the father, as Eliezer did on behalf of Abraham in Genesis 24:1-67.

Or it could be done by the young man himself.

For illustration's sake, an example of the last possibility will be used.

A young man went to the home of his potential bride-to-be. He carried three things with him: a large sum of money in order to pay the price for his bride, a betrothal contract called a Shitre Erusin, and a skin of wine.

Of course, anyone arriving with these things would immediately arouse the curiosity of the household! The man approached the girl's father and older brothers. The contract was laid out, and the bride-price was discussed.

Finally, a glass of wine was poured. If the father approved, then the young lady was called in. If she also approved, then she would drink the wine. In doing so, she committed herself to this man, agreeing to follow the contract that now was a legal document between the two.

They would be called husband and wife at this time, and their union could only be dissolved by a divorce. However, their status was that of betrothed, rather than that of fully married. This is where we as the church are today: the contract has been signed, the price has been paid in full. We are betrothed.

After the wine had been drunk, the man made the statement that he would go to his father's house and prepare a place for her. This place was known as the chadar (chamber, or a bed with a canopy).

The young Jewish bridegroom would make the following speech as he was leaving: "In my Father's house are many rooms; if it were not so, I would have told you. I am going there to prepare a place for you. And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come back and take you to be with me that you also may be where I am." Does that sound familiar to you? Our Lord Jesus spoke those same words of us in John 14:2-3!

From the time that the Shitre Erusin was ratified, the young woman was consecrated, kiddushin, set apart to her husband. That's how we as Christians should be.

She has been bought with a price and her body is no longer her own. 1 Corinthians 6:20 says "You were bought at a price. Therefore honour God with your body" and 1 Corinthians 7:23 says "You were bought at a price; do not become slaves of men."

She must spend her time preparing to live as a wife and mother in Israel. Her days of waiting for her wedding are spent in learning how to please her husband.

Meanwhile, the young man returned to his father's home, and the chadar went under construction.

The room is provided with every comfort, as they will retire here for a whole week following their wedding ceremony. We see this seven day period in: Genesis 29:22-28. Laban says - "Finish this daughter's bridal week; then we will give you the younger one also, in return for another seven years of work.' And Jacob did so. He finished the week with Leah, and then Laban gave him his daughter Rachel to be his wife." And read Judges 14:10-18, too.

The young man, if asked when the day of his wedding would be, replied, "No man knows except my father." In Israel the father had to be satisfied that every preparation had been made by his son before he gave him permission to go and get his bride. Jesus spoke these same words of His wedding day.

The groom secured two close friends to assist him in securing his bride and during the actual ceremony. These two are known as "the friends of the bridegroom." They functioned as the two witnesses required for a Jewish wedding. One of them was to assist the bride, and to lead her to the ceremony, while the other was stationed with the groom. He performed a special task when the couple retired into the chadar after the ceremony.

During the ceremony, known as Kiddushin, a second contract was brought forth called a Ketubah. This marriage contract was witnessed by the friends of the bridegroom and turned over to the parents of the bride. It contained the promises that the groom pledged to his wife.

As at all weddings, focus was centred on the bride and groom. For this one day they were looked at as king and queen. Every effort was made, and no expense was spared to ensure their joy. On this day, tradition says, their sins were forgiven. They stood pure, without spot or blemish as they were united.

Ephesians 5:25-32, "Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her to make her holy, cleansing her by the washing with water through the word, And to present her to himself as a radiant church, without stain or wrinkle or any other blemish, but holy and blameless."

Following the ceremony, the bride and groom entered the chadar. Here the groom gave gifts to the bride (Genesis 34:12 & Genesis 24:53).

The couple spent seven days under the chupah, or literally in the chamber. The friend of the bridegroom stood at the door. All the guests of the wedding assembled outside, waiting for the friend of the bridegroom to announce the consummation of the marriage covenant, which was related to him by the groom.

John 3:26-30: "They came to John and said to him, 'Rabbi, that man who was with you on the other side of the Jordan - the one you testified about - well, He is baptising, and everyone is going to him. 'To this John replied, 'A man can receive only what is given him from heaven. You yourselves can testify that I said, "I am not the Christ but am sent ahead of him. "The bride belongs to the bridegroom. The friend who attends the bridegroom waits and listens for him, and is full of joy when he hears the bridegroom's voice. That joy is mine, and it is now complete. He must become greater; I must become less."

At this signal, great rejoicing broke forth in a week long celebration, until the two emerged from the chupah to begin the actual wedding feast.

Revelation 19:4-9: "The twenty-four elders and the four living creatures fell down and worshipped God, who was seated on the throne. And they cried: 'Amen, Hallelujah!' Then a voice came from the throne, saying: 'Praise our God, all you his servants, you who fear him, both small and great!'

"Then I heard what sounded like a great multitude, like the roar of rushing waters and like loud peals of thunder, shouting: 'Hallelujah! For our Lord God Almighty reigns. Let us rejoice and be glad and give him glory! For the wedding of the Lamb has come, and his bride has made herself ready. Fine linen, bright and clean, was given her to wear.' (Fine linen stands for the righteous acts of the saints.) Then the angel said to me, 'Write: "Blessed are those who are invited to the wedding supper of the Lamb!" And he added, 'These are the true words of God."

Do you begin to understand the enormity of what we're touching here? You need to start looking at marriage through new eyes!

Even as the first trump (shofar) announced the betrothal, so the last trump announced the wedding. Today, when the shofar is blown in churches we are reminded that we are betrothed - and that there's a wedding feast yet to come!

In Psalm 45 we are brought to the biblical portrayal of not only the wedding of the Messiah but also His coronation. The guests are assembled, and gifts are distributed.

Isaiah 61:10 - 62:5 shows the glory of the bride and groom bedecked in all their wedding finery: "For He has clothed me with garments of salvation and arrayed me in a robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom adorns his head like a priest, and as a bride adorns herself with her jewels. The nations will see your righteousness, and all kings your glory; you will be called by a new name that the mouth of the LORD will bestow. You will be a crown of splendour in the Lord's hand, a royal diadem in the hand of your God. No longer will they call you Deserted, or name your land Desolate. But you will be called Heplizibah, and your land Beulah; for the LORD will take delight in you, and your land will be married. As a young man marries a maiden, so will your sons marry you; as a bridegroom rejoices over his bride, so will your God rejoice over you."

But we've left the best for last...

Before the wedding the groom required three days to prepare. We know that one day is as a thousand years to the Lord. And just as with working out the three days of the death and resurrection of Jesus, we know that the Jewish method of measuring days is different to ours.

So, we are on the brink of the third millennium, the third day. Yes, the third day is almost upon us. Our bridegroom has been preparing Himself for three days. He is fully prepared and fully expectant, longing to be with His bride. The marriage supper of the lamb could be any day now.

No one knows the exact day except the Father.

The third day is upon us - and the bridegroom is fully prepared.

But are we?

God wants to release is out of much and into much when it comes to our understanding of marriage.

He wants to pull down and smash man-made myths and perceptions of marriage. He wants us throw out all the Mills & Boon and Bold & Beautiful junk, and begin to come into a Biblical understanding of what marriage is all about.

He wants to pull down demonic strongholds over existing and past and future marriages - strongholds of lust and frigidity, strongholds that have been established because the enemy has done everything in his power to make a mockery of God's prophetic purposes.

Some of you are sitting in marriages with things over you, some of you who are divorced are still bound by hurts and bitterness, others are sitting under things that keep you from being released into marriage - because of fear and demonic oppression.

There are some to whom God would say: "I've kept you from marriage. You've fought and kicked and got angry because you've never got married, but it's been My grace that has kept you and protected you from entering into something that would just be a pale, weak, wishy-washy counterfeit of what I've really purposed for you."

And as those strongholds come down, you will begin to find marriages restored and unsaved partners coming to the Lord. Good marriages will become even better as they are elevated into the realm of becoming prophetic statements. Becoming a sign and a wonder that people will look at and say, "So that's how Jesus loves his betrothed, so that's how we as the church should submit and respond to Jesus!"

Father, in Jesus' name forgive me for taking marriage so lightly, forgive me for my perverted and wrong understandings of what marriage is meant to be. And Father as You forgive me, I pray that you will deliver me from every stronghold that is over my life in the area of marriage. Strongholds that have come down through the generations, as well as strongholds that I have allowed to become established through my own fears and sin.

"Lord I ask you to give me a revelation in my heart of Your purpose for marriage - so that my marriage (or future marriage) will become the prophetic sign and wonder to the world that You purposed it be. I ask You to do this in the precious and powerful name of Jesus through the power of Your holy Spirit."

With acknowledgements to Greg Killian for his information on Biblical wedding ceremonies.

Reproduced by kind permission of the author.



The book "The Final Quest" by Rick Joyner and it's sequel, "The Call" may well constitute the most important prophetic message to the church in our generation. It provides a startling revelation of the judgment process which each of us must undergo and confirms the extent to which the church is far removed from the reality of what God has called it to be.

It also shows that both the throne room and the thrones in heaven are not filled to anywhere near capacity because the Lord's shepherds have held onto the one and not gone after the ninety nine that are lost.


There was no way that I could answer "yes" to the Lord's question if I considered myself worthy to sit here. I was not worthy to sit in the company of any who were there. I knew I had been given the opportunity to run for the greatest prize in heaven or earth, and I had failed. I was desperate, but there was still one hope. Even though most of my life had been a failure, I knew that I was here before I had finished my life on earth. When I confessed that I was not worthy, He asked:

"But do you want this seat?"

"I do with all of my heart," I responded.

The Lord then looked at the galleries and said, "Those empty seats could have been filled in any generation. I gave the invitation to sit here to everyone who has called upon My name. They are still available. Now the last battle has come, and many who are last shall be first. These seats will be filled before the battle is over. Those who will sit here will be known by two things: they will wear the mantle of humility, and they will have My likeness. You now have the mantle. If you can keep it and do not lose it in the battle, when you return you will also have My likeness. Then you will be worthy to sit with these, because I will have made you worthy. All authority and power has been given to Me, and I alone can wield it. You will prevail, and you will be trusted with My authority only when you have come to fully abide in Me. Now turn and look at My household."

I turned and looked back in the direction I had come from. From before His throne I could see the entire room. The spectacle was beyond any comparison in its glory. Millions filled the ranks. Each individual in the lowest rank was more awesome than an army, and had more power. It was far beyond my capacity to absorb such a panorama of glory. Even so, I could see that only a very small portion of the great room was occupied.


I then looked back at the Lord and was astonished to see tears in His eyes. He had wiped the tears away from every eye here, except His own. As a tear ran down His cheek he caught it in His hand. He then offered it to me.

"This is My cup. Will you drink it with Me?"

There was no way that I could refuse Him. As the Lord continued to look at Me I began to feel His great love. Even as foul as I was He still loved me. As undeserving as I was He wanted me to be close to Him. Then He said:

"I love all of these with a love that you cannot now understand. I also love all who are supposed to be here but did not come. I have left the ninety-nine to go after the one who was lost. My shepherds would not leave the one to go after the ninety-nine who are still lost. I came to save the lost. Will you share My heart to go to save the lost? Will you help to fill this room? Will you help to fill these thrones, and every other seat in this hall? Will you take up this quest to bring joy to heaven, to Me and to My Father? This judgment is for My own household, and My own house is not full. The last battle will not be over until My house is full. Only then will it be time for us to redeem the earth, and remove the evil from My creation. If you drink My cup you will love the lost the way that I love them."


...... was about His judgment. He paused to let this sink in, and then continued.

"There is a freedom that comes when you perceive truth, but whoever I set free is free indeed. The freedom of My presence is greater than just knowing truth. You have experienced liberation in My presence, but there is yet much more for you to understand about My judgments. When I judge I am not seeking to condemn, or to justify, but to bring forth righteousness. Righteousness is only found in union with Me. That is the righteous judgment, bringing men into unity with Me.

"My church is now clothed with shame because she does not have judges. She does not have judges because she does not know Me as the judge. I will now raise up judges for My people who know My judgment. They will not just decide between people or issues, but to make things right, which is to bring them into agreement with Me.

"When I appeared to Joshua as the Captain of the Host, I declared that I was for neither him nor his enemies. I never come to take sides. When I come it is to take over, not to take sides. I appeared as the Captain of the Host before Israel could enter her Promised Land. The church is now about to enter her Promised Land, and I am again about to appear as the Captain of the Host. When I do I will remove all who have been forcing My people to take sides against their brothers. My justice does not take sides in human conflicts, even those of My own people. What I was doing through Israel I was doing for their enemies, too, not against them. It is only because you see from the earthly, temporal perspective that you do not see My justice. You must see My justice to walk in My authority because righteousness and justice are the foundation of My throne.

"I have imputed righteousness to the people I have chosen, but like Israel in the wilderness, even the greatest saints of the church age have only aligned themselves with My ways a small part of the time, or with a small part of their minds and hearts. I am not for them or against their enemies, but I am coming to use My people to save their enemies. I love all men, and desire for all to be saved."

I could not help thinking of the great battle that we had fought on the mountain. We did wound many of our own brethren as we fought against the evil controlling them. There were still many of them in the camp of the enemy, either being used by him, or kept as his prisoners. I started to wonder if the next battle would be against our own brothers again. The Lord was watching me ponder all of this, and then He continued.

"Until last battle is over, there will always be some of our brothers who are being used by the enemy. But that is not why I am telling you this now. I am telling you this to help you see how the enemy gets into your own heart and mind, and how he uses you! Even now you still do not see everything the way that I do.

"This is common with My people. At this time, even My greatest leaders are seldom in harmony with Me. Many are doing good works, but very few are doing what I have called them to do. This is the result of divisions among you. I am not coming to take sides with any one group, but I am calling for those who will come over to My side......


[Paul] put both hands on my shoulders and looked me even more resolutely straight in the eyes.

"I am your brother. I love you as everyone here does. But you must understand. Our course is now finished. We can neither add to or take away from what we planted in the earth, but you can. We are not your hope. You are now our hope. Even in this conversation I can only confirm what I have already written, but you still have much writing to do. Worship only God, and grow up in all things into Him. Never make any man your goal, but only Him. Many will soon walk the earth who will do much greater works than we did. The first shall be last, and the last, first. We do not mind this. It is the joy of our hearts because we are one with you. My generation was used to lay and begin building upon the foundation, and we will always have the honor of that. But every floor built upon the foundation should go higher. We will not be the building we are supposed to be unless you go higher."

As I pondered this he watched me closely. Then he continued, "There are two more things that we attained in our time that were lost very quickly by the church, and they have not yet been recovered. You must recover them."

"What are they?" I inquired, feeling that what he was about to say was more than just an addendum to what he had already said.

"You must recover the ministry, and the message," he said emphatically.

I looked at the Lord, and He nodded His affirmation, adding, "It is right that Paul should say this to you. Until this time he has been the most faithful with both of these."

"Please explain," I implored Paul.

"Alright," he replied. "Except for a few small places in the world where there is great persecution or difficulties now, we can hardly recognize either the ministry or the message that is being preached today. Therefore, the church is now but a phantom of what it was even in our time, and we were far from all that we were called to be. When we served, being in ministry was the greatest sacrifice one could make and this reflected the message of the greatest sacrifice that was made - the cross. The cross is the power of God, and it is the center of all that we are called to live by. You have so little power to transform the minds and hearts of the disciples now because you do not live, and do not preach, the cross. Therefore, we have difficulty seeing much difference between the disciples and the heathen. That is not the gospel or the salvation with which we were entrusted. You must return to the cross."

With those words he squeezed my shoulders like a father, and then returned to his seat. I felt like I had received both an incredible blessing and a profound rebuke. As I walked away I began thinking of the level of salvation on the mountain, and the treasures of salvation that I had seen inside the mountain. I began to see that most of my own decisions, even the decision to enter the door that led me here, was based mostly on what would get me further,......



Deuternomy 28 - 30 states the blessings and curses of the Mosaic Covenant:


1 "Now it shall come to pass, if you diligently obey the voice of the LORD your God, to observe carefully all His commandments which I command you today, that the LORD your God will set you high above all nations of the earth.

2 "And all these blessings shall come upon you and overtake you, because you obey the voice of the LORD your God:

3 "Blessed shall you be in the city, and blessed shall you be in the country.

4 "Blessed shall be the fruit of your body, the produce of your ground and the increase of your herds, the increase of your cattle and the offspring of your flocks.

5 "Blessed shall be your basket and your kneading bowl.

6 "Blessed shall you be when you come in, and blessed shall you be when you go out.

7 "The LORD will cause your enemies who rise against you to be defeated before your face; they shall come out against you one way and flee before you seven ways.

8 "The LORD will command the blessing on you in your storehouses and in all to which you set your hand, and He will bless you in the land which the LORD your God is giving you.

9 "The LORD will establish you as a holy people to Himself, just as He has sworn to you, if you keep the commandments of the LORD your God and walk in His ways.

10 "Then all peoples of the earth shall see that you are called by the name of the LORD, and they shall be afraid of you.

11 "And the LORD will grant you plenty of goods, in the fruit of your body, in the increase of your livestock, and in the produce of your ground, in the land of which the LORD swore to your fathers to give you.

12 "The LORD will open to you His good treasure, the heavens, to give the rain to your land in its season, and to bless all the work of your hand. You shall lend to many nations, but you shall not borrow.

13 "And the LORD will make you the head and not the tail; you shall be above only, and not be beneath, if you heed the commandments of the LORD your God, which I command you today, and are careful to observe them.

14 "So you shall not turn aside from any of the words which I command you this day, to the right hand or to the left, to go after other gods to serve them.

15 "But it shall come to pass, if you do not obey the voice of the LORD your God, to observe carefully all His commandments and His statutes which I command you today, that all these curses will come upon you and overtake you:

16 "Cursed shall you be in the city, and cursed shall you be in the country.

17 "Cursed shall be your basket and your kneading bowl.

18 "Cursed shall be the fruit of your body and the produce of your land, the increase of your cattle and the offspring of your flocks.

19 "Cursed shall you be when you come in, and cursed shall you be when you go out.

20 "The LORD will send on you cursing, confusion, and rebuke in all that you set your hand to do, until you are destroyed and until you perish quickly, because of the wickedness of your doings in which you have forsaken Me.

21 "The LORD will make the plague cling to you until He has consumed you from the land which you are going to possess.

22 "The LORD will strike you with consumption, with fever, with inflammation, with severe burning fever, with the sword, with scorching, and with mildew; they shall pursue you until you perish.

23 "And your heavens which are over your head shall be bronze, and the earth which is under you shall be iron.

24 "The LORD will change the rain of your land to powder and dust; from the heaven it shall come down on you until you are destroyed.

25 "The LORD will cause you to be defeated before your enemies; you shall go out one way against them and flee seven ways before them; and you shall become troublesome to all the kingdoms of the earth.

26 "Your carcasses shall be food for all the birds of the air and the beasts of the earth, and no one shall frighten them away.

27 "The LORD will strike you with the boils of Egypt, with tumors, with the scab, and with the itch, from which you cannot be healed.

28 "The LORD will strike you with madness and blindness and confusion of heart.

29 "And you shall grope at noonday, as a blind man gropes in darkness; you shall not prosper in your ways; you shall be only oppressed and plundered continually, and no one shall save you.

30 "You shall betroth a wife, but another man shall lie with her; you shall build a house, but you shall not dwell in it; you shall plant a vineyard, but shall not gather its grapes.

31 "Your ox shall be slaughtered before your eyes, but you shall not eat of it; your donkey shall be violently taken away from before you, and shall not be restored to you; your sheep shall be given to your enemies, and you shall have no one to rescue them.

32 "Your sons and your daughters shall be given to another people, and your eyes shall look and fail with longing for them all day long; and there shall be no strength in your hand.

33 "A nation whom you have not known shall eat the fruit of your land and the produce of your labor, and you shall be only oppressed and crushed continually.

34 "So you shall be driven mad because of the sight which your eyes see.

35 "The LORD will strike you in the knees and on the legs with severe boils which cannot be healed, and from the sole of your foot to the top of your head.

36 "The LORD will bring you and the king whom you set over you to a nation which neither you nor your fathers have known, and there you shall serve other gods-- wood and stone.

37 "And you shall become an astonishment, a proverb, and a byword among all nations where the LORD will drive you.

38 "You shall carry much seed out to the field and gather but little in, for the locust shall consume it.

39 "You shall plant vineyards and tend them, but you shall neither drink of the wine nor gather the grapes; for the worms shall eat them.

40 "You shall have olive trees throughout all your territory, but you shall not anoint yourself with the oil; for your olives shall drop off.

41 "You shall beget sons and daughters, but they shall not be yours; for they shall go into captivity.

42 "Locusts shall consume all your trees and the produce of your land.

43 "The alien who is among you shall rise higher and higher above you, and you shall come down lower and lower.

44 "He shall lend to you, but you shall not lend to him; he shall be the head, and you shall be the tail.

45 "Moreover all these curses shall come upon you and pursue and overtake you, until you are destroyed, because you did not obey the voice of the LORD your God, to keep His commandments and His statutes which He commanded you.

46 "And they shall be upon you for a sign and a wonder, and on your descendants forever.

47 "Because you did not serve the LORD your God with joy and gladness of heart, for the abundance of everything,

48 "therefore you shall serve your enemies, whom the LORD will send against you, in hunger, in thirst, in nakedness, and in need of everything; and He will put a yoke of iron on your neck until He has destroyed you.

49 "The LORD will bring a nation against you from afar, from the end of the earth, as swift as the eagle flies, a nation whose language you will not understand,

50 "a nation of fierce countenance, which does not respect the elderly nor show favor to the young.

51 "And they shall eat the increase of your livestock and the produce of your land, until you are destroyed; they shall not leave you grain or new wine or oil, or the increase of your cattle or the offspring of your flocks, until they have destroyed you.

52 "They shall besiege you at all your gates until your high and fortified walls, in which you trust, come down throughout all your land; and they shall besiege you at all your gates throughout all your land which the LORD your God has given you.

53 "You shall eat the fruit of your own body, the flesh of your sons and your daughters whom the LORD your God has given you, in the siege and desperate straits in which your enemy shall distress you.

54 "The sensitive and very refined man among you will be hostile toward his brother, toward the wife of his bosom, and toward the rest of his children whom he leaves behind,

55 "so that he will not give any of them the flesh of his children whom he will eat, because he has nothing left in the siege and desperate straits in which your enemy shall distress you at all your gates.

56 "The tender and delicate woman among you, who would not venture to set the sole of her foot on the ground because of her delicateness and sensitivity, will refuse to the husband of her bosom, and to her son and her daughter,

57 "her placenta which comes out from between her feet and her children whom she bears; for she will eat them secretly for lack of everything in the siege and desperate straits in which your enemy shall distress you at all your gates.

58 "If you do not carefully observe all the words of this law that are written in this book, that you may fear this glorious and awesome name, THE LORD YOUR GOD,

59 "then the LORD will bring upon you and your descendants extraordinary plagues-- great and prolonged plagues-- and serious and prolonged sicknesses.

60 "Moreover He will bring back on you all the diseases of Egypt, of which you were afraid, and they shall cling to you.

61 "Also every sickness and every plague, which is not written in the book of this law, will the LORD bring upon you until you are destroyed.

62 "You shall be left few in number, whereas you were as the stars of heaven in multitude, because you would not obey the voice of the LORD your God.

63 "And it shall be, that just as the LORD rejoiced over you to do you good and multiply you, so the LORD will rejoice over you to destroy you and bring you to nothing; and you shall be plucked from off the land which you go to possess.

64 "Then the LORD will scatter you among all peoples, from one end of the earth to the other, and there you shall serve other gods, which neither you nor your fathers have known-- wood and stone.

65 "And among those nations you shall find no rest, nor shall the sole of your foot have a resting place; but there the LORD will give you a trembling heart, failing eyes, and anguish of soul.

66 "Your life shall hang in doubt before you; you shall fear day and night, and have no assurance of life.

67 "In the morning you shall say, 'Oh, that it were evening!' And at evening you shall say, 'Oh, that it were morning!' because of the fear which terrifies your heart, and because of the sight which your eyes see.

68 "And the LORD will take you back to Egypt in ships, by the way of which I said to you, 'You shall never see it again.' And there you shall be offered for sale to your enemies as male and female slaves, but no one will buy you."


1 These are the words of the covenant which the LORD commanded Moses to make with the children of Israel in the land of Moab, besides the covenant which He made with them in Horeb.

2 Now Moses called all Israel and said to them: "You have seen all that the LORD did before your eyes in the land of Egypt, to Pharaoh and to all his servants and to all his land--

3 "the great trials which your eyes have seen, the signs, and those great wonders.

4 "Yet the LORD has not given you a heart to perceive and eyes to see and ears to hear, to this very day.

5 "And I have led you forty years in the wilderness. Your clothes have not worn out on you, and your sandals have not worn out on your feet;

6 "you have not eaten bread, nor have you drunk wine or similar drink; that you may know that I am the LORD your God.

7 "And when you came to this place, Sihon king of Heshbon and Og king of Bashan came out against us to battle, and we conquered them.

8 "We took their land and gave it as an inheritance to the Reubenites, to the Gadites, and to half the tribe of Manasseh.

9 "Therefore keep the words of this covenant, and do them, that you may prosper in all that you do.

10 "All of you stand today before the LORD your God: your leaders and your tribes and your elders and your officers, all the men of Israel,

11 "your little ones and your wives-- also the stranger who is in your camp, from the one who cuts your wood to the one who draws your water--

12 "that you may enter into covenant with the LORD your God, and into His oath, which the LORD your God makes with you today,

13 "that He may establish you today as a people for Himself, and that He may be God to you, just as He has spoken to you, and just as He has sworn to your fathers, to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

14 "I make this covenant and this oath, not with you alone,

15 "but also with him who stands here with us today before the LORD our God, as well as with him who is not here with us today

16 (for you know that we dwelt in the land of Egypt and that we came through the nations which you passed by,

17 and you saw their abominations and their idols which were among them-- wood and stone and silver and gold);

18 "so that there may not be among you man or woman or family or tribe, whose heart turns away today from the LORD our God, to go and serve the gods of these nations, and that there may not be among you a root bearing bitterness or wormwood;

19 "and so it may not happen, when he hears the words of this curse, that he blesses himself in his heart, saying, 'I shall have peace, even though I walk in the imagination of my heart'-- as though the drunkard could be included with the sober.

20 "The LORD would not spare him; for then the anger of the LORD and His jealousy would burn against that man, and every curse that is written in this book would settle on him, and the LORD would blot out his name from under heaven.

21 "And the LORD would separate him from all the tribes of Israel for adversity, according to all the curses of the covenant that are written in this Book of the Law,

22 "so that the coming generation of your children who rise up after you, and the foreigner who comes from a far land, would say, when they see the plagues of that land and the sicknesses which the LORD has laid on it:

23 'The whole land is brimstone, salt, and burning; it is not sown, nor does it bear, nor does any grass grow there, like the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboim, which the LORD overthrew in His anger and His wrath.'

24 "All nations would say, 'Why has the LORD done so to this land? What does the heat of this great anger mean?'

25 "Then people would say: 'Because they have forsaken the covenant of the LORD God of their fathers, which He made with them when He brought them out of the land of Egypt;

26 'for they went and served other gods and worshiped them, gods that they did not know and that He had not given to them.

27 'Then the anger of the LORD was aroused against this land, to bring on it every curse that is written in this book.

28 'And the LORD uprooted them from their land in anger, in wrath, and in great indignation, and cast them into another land, as it is this day.'

29 "The secret things belong to the LORD our God, but those things which are revealed belong to us and to our children forever, that we may do all the words of this law.


1 "Now it shall come to pass, when all these things come upon you, the blessing and the curse which I have set before you, and you call them to mind among all the nations where the LORD your God drives you,

2 "and you return to the LORD your God and obey His voice, according to all that I command you today, you and your children, with all your heart and with all your soul,

3 "that the LORD your God will bring you back from captivity, and have compassion on you, and gather you again from all the nations where the LORD your God has scattered you.

4 "If any of you are driven out to the farthest parts under heaven, from there the LORD your God will gather you, and from there He will bring you.

5 "Then the LORD your God will bring you to the land which your fathers possessed, and you shall possess it. He will prosper you and multiply you more than your fathers.

6 "And the LORD your God will circumcise your heart and the heart of your descendants, to love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul, that you may live.

7 "Also the LORD your God will put all these curses on your enemies and on those who hate you, who persecuted you.

8 "And you will again obey the voice of the LORD and do all His commandments which I command you today.

9 "The LORD your God will make you abound in all the work of your hand, in the fruit of your body, in the increase of your livestock, and in the produce of your land for good. For the LORD will again rejoice over you for good as He rejoiced over your fathers,

10 "if you obey the voice of the LORD your God, to keep His commandments and His statutes which are written in this Book of the Law, and if you turn to the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul.

11 "For this commandment which I command you today, it is not too mysterious for you, nor is it far off.

12 "It is not in heaven, that you should say, 'Who will ascend into heaven for us and bring it to us, that we may hear it and do it?'

13 "Nor is it beyond the sea, that you should say, 'Who will go over the sea for us and bring it to us, that we may hear it and do it?'

14 "But the word is very near you, in your mouth and in your heart, that you may do it.

15 "See, I have set before you today life and good, death and evil,

16 "in that I command you today to love the LORD your God, to walk in His ways, and to keep His commandments, His statutes, and His judgments, that you may live and multiply; and the LORD your God will bless you in the land which you go to possess.

17 "But if your heart turns away so that you do not hear, and are drawn away, and worship other gods and serve them,

18 "I announce to you today that you shall surely perish; you shall not prolong your days in the land which you cross over the Jordan to go in and possess.

19 "I call heaven and earth as witnesses today against you, that I have set before you life and death, blessing and cursing; therefore choose life, that both you and your descendants may live;

20 "that you may love the LORD your God, that you may obey His voice, and that you may cling to Him, for He is your life and the length of your days; and that you may dwell in the land which the LORD swore to your fathers, to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, to give them." (NKJ)










As I was led by the Holy Spirit to research the subject of this book, I came across the book, "After Polygamy was made a sin, the social history of Christian Polygamy", by John Cairncross, published by Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, in 1974.

Various extracts of this book are quoted verbatim below:


The idea of writing this book goes back to a winter's day on the Paris quais, some twenty years ago, when I discovered a rare French eighteenth-century book. It was a defence of monogamy, and it turned out to be dull and prolix. However, a second reading revealed that the work was not just a conventional moral treatise but was an attempt to counter a very real campaign in favour of polygamy.

I tracked down the - equally rare - studies referred to by the author. My appetite was whetted. I began to dig deeper into this new and bizarre controversy. One discovery led to another. A lucky find in a London bookshop showed that Milton had secretly held pro-polygamy views. Another buy, also in London, brought to light the indignant attacks of B. Higgons, Gent. on Bishop Burnet's heterodox opinions on matrimony. A month's intensive research at the British Museum and a delightful professorial year at Western Reserve University in Cleveland brought in a rich harvest, especially of German and American material.

From all this detective work there emerged a long but largely underground tradition of Christian polygamy (supplemented and sometimes intertwined with a mainly French freethinking current), which extends from the first half of the sixteenth century to about 1800, and indeed, in isolated areas of Utah, to the present day.

The reconstruction of the tradition was no easy task, precisely because it was underground. Orthodoxy in Western Europe, or for that matter in the Christian world as a whole, has been fiercely opposed to polygamy in any shape or form since at least A.D. 600, and has shown itself particularly ruthless in suppressing the hated monster whenever it raised its head in their own ranks. This constant opposition explains both-why the Christian polygamists rarely put their views into practice and why their writings are often to be found in scarce, or out-of-the-way editions. For the same reason, most of the studies of the subject are fragmentary, uncritical and biased.

By going back to the original texts, I have tried to present a less distorted picture of the tradition. The exposition of the material in its historical sequence and perspective has led to not a few curious discoveries, such as the relation between Mormon polygamy in its early stages and the private life of the founder of that religion.

This book does not of course set out to argue the advantages of polygamy, of which there are as many kinds as there are of revolution. In particular, Christian polygamy, as I have attempted to show in Chapter 1, is very much sui generis. It is therefore pointless, in this book and elsewhere, to talk of polygamy as such. While I discuss the possible reasons for the emergence of the tradition and its eclipse, my main aim is simply to portray each of the phases of its evolution, which are often not causally connected but arise from the combination of certain constant ingredients at various points in time between 1530 and 1900.

Despite the lengthy research and analysis which went to the making of this book, I greatly enjoyed writing it, and only hope that it will also divert the reader.


The correct term is 'polygyny' meaning 'many women'). 'Polygamy' literally means having man spouses

Pages 1 to 3:



On 23 July in the year of grace 1534, the northwest German city of Munster proclaimed polygamy as the ideal form of marriage. The event is unique in the history of Christian Europe, and the reaction to this announcement explains why the experiment was never repeated. For it was greeted with unanimous revulsion and horror.

This condemnation (both then and subsequently) reflects a loathing for polygamy which is very deeply rooted in western man. True, the idea of cohabiting both with a wife and one or more mistresses has often been tolerated and even covertly admired. But the open and legal possession of several wives permitted by polygamy has been strictly taboo. For most Europeans, such a practice has always seemed the acme of libertinage and has exercised a guilty fascination. It conjures up visions of voluptuous oriental harems and uninhibited caresses on sunny south sea beaches. As Briffault points out in his comprehensive work on marriage, The Mothers,[1] 'there is scarcely a feature of non-European societies which excites the same zealous denunciation....Every other departure from European sexual codes,

every vice even, is looked upon with lenience' in comparison.

Almost from the outset,[2] Christianity has set its face sternly against plural marriage. In fact, if 'polygamy was made a sin', this was the Church's doing. To quote Briffault again, before the coming of Christ, polygamy was universally established and practised:[3]

The terms 'monogamy', 'bigamy', 'polygamy', in the sense in which we use them, were unknown, and there existed no words to indicate what they denote. The 'prohibition' of polygyny [is not a natural, innate inclination of humanity, but] was promulgated for the first time in any part of the world in the code of Justinian in the sixth century of our era.... No authenticated instance is known outside Christian nations of a people among whom polygyny is an object of moral reprobation or is condemned or forbidden by tribal custom.

Conversely, 'even today, the grounds of European objections to polygamy are incomprehensible to uncultured peoples'.

How was it possible for such an unChristian institution to emerge in the heart of Europe? The answer is not a simple one, but it is undoubtedly connected with the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation in Germany. when the great Reformer, Martin Luther, nailed his protest against papal indulgences to the church door in Wittenberg in 1517, he started an earthquake. The authority of the Pope and the Catholic hierarchy in northern Germany was rapidly undermined, and in its place was set the Gospel, now available in the vernacular to all and sundry and no longer a Latin text reserved for priests and scholars. Moreover, both the Old and the New Testaments were held to be literally inspired and hence equally deserving of reverence. Admittedly, in the Catholic Middle Ages the patriarchs had been treated as the forerunners of Christ, but the Lutherans placed them on an even higher pedestal, Hence the polygamous proclivities of the Old Testament fathers began to loom larger and larger in theological discussions. And they were viewed with considerable indulgence. If Luther rejected pleas for the re-introduction of polygamy, this was not because he thought such a move would be morally wrong but because he was convinced that it was not at all expedient, since it would be bound to discourage potential converts to the new faith.

But these discussions were merely on stream in the flood of controversy unleashed by Luther's defiance of clerical authority/ Far more important that the validity of the patriarchal example was the denunciation of monastic celibacy as the root of all sexual evil. Reacting violently against medieval practice, he urged all but those with a genuine vocation for chastity to marry and propagate the species, especially women. For the first time in Europe, the text 'Increase and multiply' resounded with predictable regularity from the pulpit.

These doctrines were enthusiastically taken up by the more radical Protestant sects, especially the Anabaptists. And the men who proclaimed the Munster were of the persuasion. Among many other things, the sect was fiercely exclusive. Members regarded themselves as the elect, and everyone else, including Lutherans, as infidels. No marriage was valid unless contracted between sectarians and blessed by the elders. such an attitude was bound to lead to some degree of contempt for orthodox morals and some relaxation of the marriage bond. A marriage within the community might be held to be indissoluble, but this was small comfort to the unbelieving spouse who, having refused to follow his or her partner in joining the elect, was summarily abandoned.

The factor which probably had an even greater influence on Anabaptist morals (especially in Munster) was the belief of the sectarians in the Second Coming of christ who would restore all things to their pristine purity before the Fall. Millennialism is as old as the world and has assumed innumerable forms. It has always, however, been the religion of the poor and the afflicted who looked to apocalyptic future to compensate them for their present sufferings. the Anabaptists were drawn from the poorer classes. They were also excessively Puritanical in their sexual morals. these various elements combined to produce the conviction that the begetting without sin or lust of a certain number of children would hasten the Coming of Christ.

Such a conception of marriage and parenthood clearly represents a potential move towards polygamy. Add to this the new emphasis on the Old Testament, Luther's teaching on marriage, the state of flux of religious belief in general, and in particular the domination of the sectarians by prophets receiving direct revelations from God. It will then be clear why theories which would ordinarily be dismissed as visionary could, given the right combination of circumstances, personality and leadership, produce a kind of theological mutation which was totally unexpected at the time. Cases of plural marriage can be traced spasmodically in central Germany during the 1520s but the anabaptists as a whole did not subscribe to polygamy. that institution was formally adopted by a group only when the anabaptists took control of Munster and, even then, only after John of Leyden had assumed power after the death of the previous leader, Jan Matthys.

Pages 31 - 52:



'If only', observes Pascal, in one of his penetrating Pansees, 'Cleopatra's nose had been a fraction shorter, the course of world history would have been altered.' An equally plausible, though less edifying supposition is that, if only Philip the Magnanimous of Hesse had followed the current practice of taking a concubine and not married a second wife, the Reformation might have swept irresistibly through the whole of Germany and possibly even central Europe as well. As it was, the Landgrave (to use his German title) felt impelled by his reverence for the sacraments to mend his first marriage by contracting a second one even while his wife was alive.

And he did so with the sanction of the Fathers of the Reformation. 'The first paladin of German Protestantism', notes the scholarly Rockwell in the opening page of his book on Philip's bigamy, was, with Luther's and Melanchthon's permission, a bigamist.' Protestant historians have never recovered from the shock. One of Luther's biographers denounces the step as the greatest stain on his reputation and indeed on the Reformation. Other writers have sought to shift the blame to the unfortunate Landgrave.

Philip indignantly denied that he was at fault. And it is difficult not to feel some sympathy for him. At the youthful age of sixteen, before he knew what he was doing, he was railroaded into an engagement with Christina, the daughter of Duke George of Saxony (of the house of Meissen). She had given him six children (some historians say seven) at the time of his bigamous marriage. 'Nevertheless,' says Rockwell with professorial candour, 'Philip was dissatisfied with his wife.' The reasons for his unhappiness are not far to seek. Christina was desperately plain. She drank and stank and had unpleasant (if unspecified) habits. Little wonder that Philip 'never felt love or desire for her.' His revulsion must have been intense, for he describes himself as having a strong constitution, and he is credited with the possession of three testicles and a correspondingly powerful sex drive.

He stuck it out for three weeks, and thereafter settled down to a steady diet of fornication and adultery, seasoned with occasional bouts of homosexuality. At assemblies of the German Princes, he was particularly exposed to the temptations of the flesh during the long sessions of riotous carousing. As Philip put it to the Lutheran preachers, how could he, in all fairness, avoid sin when he could not always 'take a large harem along with him'?

It was not that he lacked a moral sense. He was a God-fearing prince, well versed in the Bible. Well enough to know that, according to Saint Paul, adulterers and fornicators would never enter the kingdom of heaven. So that, if he died in battle, the Devil would carry him off to eternal damnation. He was constantly being urged by his spiritual advisers to suppress immorality, but how could he punish offenders when he was himself guilty of the sin? His feeling of guilt was such that, soon after his marriage (in 1523), he consistently refrained from observing communion, although he longed to partake of it. His pangs of conscience rose to a paroxysm in 1539 when, like so many of his illustrious contemporaries, he had a serious attack of syphilis - obviously, he felt, a punishment from on high for his excesses.

His sufferings, both physical and spiritual, became intolerable. But what was the remedy? Divorce was out of the question, both on legal and political grounds. However, if he could not repudiate Christina, could he not marry another, more attractive wife, and thus escape from the toils of Satan? He had long and openly proclaimed his belief that it was not an offence in God's eyes to have two wives, and he was encouraged in this view by some of the court preachers. His interest in bigamy revived, and it became intense when he suddenly fell in love with a beautiful seventeen-year-old girl called Margarete von der Sale - a lady-in-waiting to his sister Elizabeth (wife of Duke Henry of the house of Dresden).

However, it takes two to make a marriage, especially a bigamous one. Philip realized that the struggle would be a hard one, and he prepared for it with the meticulous but daring generalship that he brought to his strategic campaigns. The girl, or rather her widowed mother, Anna, had to be won round, and Anna had very clear ideas as to what she wanted. Ambition, reinforced by respect for conventional morality, enabled her to put formidable pressure on the Prince. She was not prepared to let her daughter become Philip's concubine, or even (by a secret bigamous marriage) to be put in a position which suggested as much. Initially, therefore, the most that she would concede was that Margarete would be pre-empted for the Landgrave for three years. If Christina died within this waiting period, Margarete would be his. And she sweetened her semi-refusal by permitting Philip to visit her daughter in the family house as often as he wished.

Philip was not discouraged. Gradually he wore down the mother's resistance. His first victory was to obtain her agreement to a bigamous marriage if its legitimacy was openly defended and if others were allowed to follow the Prince's example, that is, if bigamy were made generally and publicly permissible. This demand was at once rejected. But Philip kept up the pressure and in the end Anna yielded further ground. She now accepted that the marriage be kept secret, but she held out for the attendance at it of state and church dignitaries. Her list of prospective wedding guests is impressive. It includes Johann Friedrich, the Elector of Saxony, some of Philip's senior councillors, his wife Christina, she herself of course, her brother, Ernst von Miltitz, and, on the clerical side, Luther, Melanchthon and Bucer (the three leading figures in the German Reformation), or, at the very least, two of them. However, in the end, she relented to some extent. If the Elector and the Duke were unable to attend, their delegates would do.

The Landgrave was not daunted by these exacting terms. From Augsburg (still in 1539), he summoned one of his most trusted agents - a certain Dr Sailer, who then spent three months at Philip's court. During his stay, he was induced to try to persuade Bucer, an eminent theologian and an old friend and adviser of the Landgrave, to act as intermediary in the delicate task of obtaining the support of his fellow Reformers - Luther and Melanchthon - and of the Elector. And in November Sailer set out for Strassburg where Bucer was then settled.

When he learned that Philip was planning to commit bigamy, Bucer was 'utterly horrified'. He feared the devastating effect of such 'novelties' (i.e., radical doctrines) on the weaker brethren in the Reformation, and hesitated to commit himself. Thereupon, Sailer played his trump card. Was Bucer prepared to stand by and see the Landgrave, the Captain of the Protestant forces, make his peace with the Catholic faction, as he would undoubtedly do if he were refused the moral backing that he was requesting. Rather than see the whole movement come crashing down in ruin, Bucer accepted the invitation to broach the question of bigamy to the Reformers.

By the end of November, he was at the Landgrave's castle at Melsungen,

where he was treated to an uninhibited and exhaustive confession by the Prince of all his variegated sins, his physical sufferings and deprivations, and his obsessive Angst about damnation. Under this massive assault, Bucer's

last scruples crumbled. To buttress him for the encounter with Luther, he was given a detailed brief on Philip's request which - it was carefully underlined - was a modest one, covering only one additional wife. What was wanted, ran the instructions to the Reformer,was a written testimony that the Prince would not be committing an offence against God if he contracted such a marriage. The ceremony would be secret, but Luther and Melanchthon were requested 'to spy out a way' to make it public at some later date.

The issue was raised in general terms. Margarete's name was never mentioned in the discussions, and indeed Bucer was probably unaware that the Landgrave had already made his choice of a second wife. This silence on Philip's part has frequently been trounced as disingenuous, both at the time and later - as if the principle involved was of secondary importance and the morality or otherwise of bigamy depended on the identity of his 'fiancee' and the date of his marriage to her. On any reasoning, Philip's tactics were justified. He saw no ground for bringing Margarete into the picture until the obstacles to his union with her were removed. However, he can have had little doubt that his plans would succeed, for, early in November, Sailer had been instructed to order the wine for the wedding, and to observe the most scrupulous discretion in making the purchase.

It is doubtful if Bucer felt the same confidence as his master. However, armed with his brief, he set out on the journey and arrived on 9 December in Wittenberg, where he immediately submitted the Landgrave's suit to the other two Reformers. They were horrified. They realized at once the 'unbounded offence' which such a bigamous marriage would cause. The reaction among the Protestants would be one of utter dismay, especially when it came to the womenfolk. Bucer was himself later to write: 'It must be most painful above all for women to hear [of this marriage]. Of all the thousands of pious and kindly women, there will not be a single one whom the news will not stab to the heart.'

And, if this was the effect of one marriage, there would be a cataclysm if the example were followed and a tidal wave of Munsterite polygamy surged across Germany. The prospect was by no means fanciful. Some two years later, Bucer foresaw that the publication, with Philip's endorsement, of a work in favour of polygamy would 'raise up a new sect of wild fanatics'. People would imagine that Philip's bigamy could be imitated with impunity -even, as Luther was to put it, by the veriest clodhopper. But it was not only from the masses that danger threatened. Another Protestant divine was to issue the solemn warning that many men of the highest rank shared Philip's views and he feared therefore 'a violent bloody war if this evil or this untimely madness [was] imprudently fanned'.

If dissension would burst into flame within the Protestant camp,

danger from the enemy was equally serious. In the early 1520s, the

Pope had instructed his legate to the Diet of Worms to represent the

Protestant doctrine as pernicious because it favoured polygamy.

And Sir Thomas More had used the same gambit in his defence of Henry VIII against the Lutherans' attack (in the days before he broke with Rome). Lastly and more immediately, the Reformation might, as already shown, be hamstrung if Philip defected to the side of the Emperor, as he openly threatened to do if the Reformers were obstinate in giving him their approval.

And this approval Philip was determined to have. For it both enabled Philip to secure Anna's consent to the marriage, defend his action if it came to an open clash, and, perhaps most important of all, give him some protection against the Emperor. Bigamy had been made a capital offence in 1532. If therefore the marriage became public, Philip could be tried and sentenced by his overlord. The Holy Roman Empire might, as Voltaire put it in a famous joke, be 'neither holy, Roman nor an Empire', but it was still the greatest power in Europe, and Charles V, the ruling Emperor, was the master of Spain and the Austrian dominions, lord of the German principalities, and a brilliant statesman and strategist.

In this delicate situation, Luther and Melanchthon found themselves between the devil of Philip's pressure and the deep sea of potential Protestant disintegration. For two days, they wrestled with the intricacies of the problem and with their consciences. And, on the second, they set their signatures (jointly with Bucer) to a document which is unique in European history - the Wittenberg Deliberation. It bears the scars of the travail that attended its birth. Much of it is taken up with an examination of the Biblical authority for polygamy. And there is a long homily on the virtues of chastity

which quotes the dictum of the Albanian hero, Skanderbeg, to the effect that nothing weakens a warrior's strength so much as indulgence.

But the nub of the matter lies in three relatively short passages. The first, inserted by Melanchthon, stresses the danger that (if Philip were to take a second wife) the enemies of the Gospel would lump the Protestants together with the polygamous Turks and wild Musterites. The second warns against the temptation of many of the faithful to follow Philip's example in an age when, to a far greater extent than nowadays, 'the acts of Princes cause[d] more of a stir than those of their subjects'. Hence, if the common people saw 'a Prince take another wife, they [would] claim to be allowed similar latitude'. However, 'if [Philip] was bent on marrying again', and they were well aware that he was, there was no alternative. They were being forced at gunpoint to pronounce, and had to come off the fence. 'Bucer [was] pressing to be allowed to go back', and they could not let him leave without an answer. And so, they agreed, with obvious distaste, in the third and conclusive passage that they would not object, provided the marriage were kept strictly secret. 'And so', they wrote, 'you have our written testimony in case of need.'

Having overcome the first hurdle, the Landgrave's ambassador set off on the next leg of his whirlwind tour. On 15 December, he was received by the Elector of Saxony, Johan Friedrich. Bucer's mission to the prince was facilitated by the grant of the Deliberation and possibly even more by an assurance from Philip that he would back the Elector for Emperor if a war of religion were to break out and the Protestants were to defeat the Catholics, and thus be able to nominate an Emperor of their own faith. Even though sweetened by such assurances, the news staggered the Saxon ruler. His reply was studiedly cautious. It repeatedly urged the Landgrave to desist

from his plans. If, however, his resolve was unalterable, be should observe the strictest secrecy. And the message ended with vague and diplomatic professions of friendliness and offers of help.

Philip himself had not been inactive. On 11 December he obtained the consent of his wife, by promising that her children would be sole heirs to the throne and - an assurance that may have been appreciated even more - that he would show her more and not less kindness than before through sleeping with her and through other actions befitting married people.

Having secured the approval, or at least the complicity, of the main persons involved, he was now ready to lay siege to Anna. After Bucer had reported on his mission, the Landgrave despatched two messengers to her (on 23 December) with copies of all the various dispensations and agreements. On 12 January 1540, the messengers returned, but without the unequivocal reply which Philip had expected. Anna had not only maintained her previous demands but had actually added new ones. She now insisted that Christina should issue an invitation to her for the wedding. It appears that the Landgrave ignored this proposal. But he confirmed his agreement to all the other terms, with the exception of the suggested invitation to Ernst von Miltitz, Anna's brother, on the grounds that, 'as a Papist, he was not sufficiently well versed in the Scriptures to grasp the legitimacy of the second marriage.'

For the rest, he now regarded the wedding as certain, and, for the first time, revealed to a few chosen councillors the identity of his 'fiancee'. His court preachers thereupon appended their names to the Wittenberg Deliberation, and (on 18 January) he obtained a further clearance from his wife. Far from being taken aback on learning of his plans for Margarete, Christina - at least so the Landgrave alleges - was even more agreeable to his plans than when they had been put to her in general terms.

Everything then was ready for the ceremony. But what of the bride herself? Hitherto Margarete had received Philip's attentions passively, without pleasure or aversion. She may not even have known of his intentions, since the Landgrave had not confided in her - though her mother had probably given her some inkling of what was afoot. What was more, Margarete was not on good terms with her mother, and might not take kindly to the engagements entered into by Anna on her behalf. Philip was therefore afraid that, at the last moment, the girl might jettison the understanding and try to escape to her friends and relatives. Indeed, he had laid plans to counter any such move by producing Margarete's letters (however innocuous) and thus spoil her marriage prospects.

But his fears proved groundless. Margarete showed herself happy at her fate. By mid-February, she had moved from Dresden to her mother's estate. And on 4 March the marriage took place at the small town of Rothenburg an der Fulda.

Philip kept his word as to the invitations. The Elector and the house of Meissen sent representatives, and Bucer and Melanchthon arrived as well. Strangely enough, the Reformers do not seem to have been told whom Philip was marrying until they entered the church. Philip's written instructions (also dated 4 March) to Melander and Lening, two of his preachers, as to what they were to tell their colleagues do not mention Margarete, but refer to her as 'a person who is now disposed to take me in marriage'. The brief is also revealing as to the preoccupations uppermost in the Landgrave's mind. 'It is vital', says the note, that the Reformers and his own counsellors be present to bear witness that he plans 'a marriage and not whoremongering'. The Reformers are urged never to use the word 'concubine', since that usually refers to a whore. Philip must have a wife whom he likes, since he means to retain his first wife! Should Christina die, he plans to keep his second wife as his only one, thus returning to the monogamist fold. Hence, she cannot be 'a person of lowly rank such as a peasant girl'. And he concludes with a statement of what he will say if asked by the guests about the reasons for his marriage. It is intended 'as a medicine and remedy for evil conduct and dissolute living', and it will help him to lead a better and more Christian life.

The Landgrave's instructions were faithfully followed by Melander as the wedding certificate testifies. After paying tribute with the starched pomp of the times to 'our most mighty, most invincible and most gracious Emperor, Charles V,' the document records the presence of 'his Highness, Prince and Lord Philip, Landgrave, Count of Katzelnbogen, Diez, Ziegenhayn and Nidda, with certain councillors of His Highness on the one hand, and the honourable and virtuous maiden, Margarete von der Sale, and certain relatives on the other.'

Melander then explained that Philip wished to marry Margarete although his Highness's first wife was still alive. In order, however, the address continued, 'that this step is not decreed as capricious or frivolous and no offence be caused hereby and the good name of the said maiden and her honourable relatives be not jeopardized, [his Highness swears before God] that it is motivated by important and unavoidable considerations of conscience and body and that it is impossible for him to be saved unless he takes a second wife in addition to his first one.' The marriage was a quiet one, since 'in our times it is unusual to have two wives at the same time ... although in the present case it is licit and Christian.' Thereupon the couple, joined in marriage by the preacher, 'swore undying love and troth to each other.' The following day, Melanchthon himself then urged the Prince, as thanks for the dispensation granted, to take better care of the Lutheran clergy and teachers in church schools, and to abstain from fornication, adultery and boys.

The Landgrave was so overjoyed that he took little notice of such exhortations. Far from being plagued with moral scruples, he was proud of his action. 'I have done it', he said a fortnight later, with God and a good conscience.' And on 5 April, he wrote to Luther thanking him for the dispensation and telling him that he had taken Easter communion 'with a merry conscience', and would as a result be able to further the cause of the Reformation with greater zeal. He added the piquant detail that Margarete had turned out to be a relative of the great theologian's wife, and hence, to his delight, he was Luther's brother-in-law! He was convinced of the legitimacy of his marriage, but what answer should he give if he were asked point blank about it? Luther replied immediately that the bigamy

be kept secret because of the bad example it might set.

But it was too much to expect that all those in the know would be

discreet. Some of them even had an interest in provoking a scandal.

Nor did the Landgrave's friends all help. In April, the court preacher,

Melander, was foolish enough to defend bigamy from the pulpit. And the feverish building work on Margarete's new residence in the country set tongues wagging. By 25 May, another court divine was writing in anguished tones to the Prince that a 'terrible rumour' was all over the land, and was likely to cause widespread defections fromthe Gospel. A country parson, he added, had even asserted that Luther's permission to celebrate the marriage had been bought at the cost of a cask of wine.

The tales soon reached the car of Duke Henry of Dresden. He

was the husband of Elizabeth, Philip's sister, and Elizabeth herself

was Margarete's mistress. Henry realized that it would be automatically assumed that he and his wife were a party to the marriage, and he determined to get to the bottom of the reports. It was not hard for him. Anna von der Sale was one of his subjects. On the last day of May, she was fetched to court by a posse of cavalry and forced to make full confession. The next day, she was escorted back to her estate together with two secretaries, and obliged to deliver up the documents in her possession for copying. As it happened, she surrendered only Philip's declaration to his wife of 11 December and a long document by Bucer, setting out his views for and against polygamy. In the confusion, this had been substituted for the

Wittenberg Deliberation.

The story soon made the rounds of Germany and beyond. Preachers fell to denouncing Philip for his lapse from grace. Other reactions were of unbelieving hilarity. Had one ever heard of anything so silly? asked the Markgrave of Brandenburg. The Emperor himself, who had sired children all over Europe and then had them legitimized by the Pope, felt that it was all a huge joke (but one that could be turned to solid political advantage). And in France there was ribald Gallic laughter. More serious men were profoundly disturbed. Ferdinand, who was to succeed Charles V as Emperor, is said to have been deflected by the scandal from turning Protestant.

The men who had granted Philip his secret dispensation were on tenterhooks, and hastily looked to their defences. Luther wrote to the Elector that he had been misled by the Landgrave. He had thought Philip had meant to take 'only a simple girl' who would be kept in a quiet spot out of harm's and gossip's way. But the Prince, as it now turned out, had married a lady-in-waiting - no less - who and been set up in an imposing country residence. The moral issues appeared to be of less concern to Luther than the social ones. And indeed, to judge by his Table Talk (1540) at the time, he saw the only hope of salvation in the possibility that, who could say? Margarete might soon die!

Melanchthon, for his part, tried to beat a retreat, and delivered himself of a revised, and unfavourable, pronouncement on the marriage. Thereupon, under the weight of the 'mounting evils' springing up all around him, he prayed to God 'to avert the monstrous danger and scandal', and broke down. For days he was unable to touch food or drink, and hovered between life and death. He only rallied when Luther rode out to breathe confidence into him with the power of his robust faith.

The Elector was equally concerned. He had only agreed to the marriage with the utmost hesitation and on the express condition that it was kept strictly secret. He now sent Philip a letter full of veiled reproaches for having caused Melanchthon's collapse - an accusation which Philip heatedly rejected. There was of course no question of Saxon support for the Landgrave's position now that the bigamy was the stock subject of conversation in Germany.

The common factor in all these reactions was an insistence on the need to keep this gigantic skeleton in its cupboard. Philip on the contrary was perfectly prepared to drag it out into the light of day. From the start (as his instructions to Bucer show), he had been eager to have the marriage recognized by all and sundry and not kept as a subject for snickering whispers or open denunciation. The subtle distinction drawn by Luther between what was right in God's eyes and what at could be defended to the world seemed to him the flimsiest of casuistries. He may have been the founder of the great university of Marburg, but he was essentially a bluff military man, more at home on the battlefield or with his hunting dogs than with 'the sapient sutlers of the Lord'. He had clear, straightforward ideas,

and he stuck to them with laudable tenacity. For him, what was right was right and he was prepared to defend his convictions even at the cost of political eclipse. Rather than see his marriage questioned, he would content to retire to a house or two (doubtless for his two establishments), and hand over his state to his children or the Emperor.

He was not disturbed by the prospect of opposition. 'From the world', he wrote to Luther, 'we do not count on extorting recognition of Margarete.' He felt that his position on that score was by no means weak. It was an age when marriage was in a state of flux. Priests had forsworn celibacy and taken wives to themselves on turning Lutheran, but Catholics still regarded such unions as invalid and sacrilegious. Other radical innovations, such as bigamy, would naturally meet with similar condemnation, at least to start with. But this did not make them any less justifiable than priestly marriages. Luther, the ex-monk, married to an ex-nun, need therefore not be so self-righteous. And, in the same letter just quoted, Philip, after affirming that he considers Margarete his wife by God's word and Luther's advice, administers a savage thrust at the Reformer: 'God grant that the world may so regard the wives of our preachers in this and other lands.'

Nor was it merely a question of Philip's own marriage. The relief afforded him should be granted to others as well. To Bucer he wrote acidly that he would not dispute whether bigamy was sinful or not, or whether it was formerly a general usage, 'for we leave that toyou, the learned, in your superior wisdom'. 'But', he noted pointedly, 'if anyone falls into the same difficulty, we would not hesitate to countenance a similar remission in his case', though he qualified this threat by making the marriage conditional on the approval of the man's confessor, the state authorities, and, if pressed, the freely given consent of the first wife as well.

Strong in the assurance of the justice of his case, Philip even assembled his notables (on 22 June) at Cassel and tried to induce them to back his stand. He was unsuccessful. His advisers were well aware that such a course would provoke a violent intervention by the Emperor. They therefore suggested a more diplomatic line. The Landgrave should admit to having a concubine, but quibble as to the meaning of the word. The public would take it as synonymous with a mistress, whereas Philip would understand it in the biblical sense of an additional wife, a helpmeet before the Lord, such as those taken by Abraham, David and other holy men. Very reluctantly, the Landgrave agreed, for he had always heartily disliked the immoral associations of the word suggested.

However, the Reformers felt that even this concession was not enough to save the situation. They were particularly apprehensive of the danger of a general tolerance for bigamy. Bucer repeatedly urged the Landgrave to tell a deliberate, holy lie when asked about the rumours, and quoted Scripture in support of his views. Had not Abraham deceived his host when asked about Sarah? And did not even God Himself mislead His enemies by visions and illusions? Bucer even suggested that Philip should revise the marriage contract to make Margarete a concubine, though continuing to treat her as a wife. And he made other improving proposals, such as that Philip sould devote less time to hunting and other amusements and more to matters of state and to his wife. The Landgrave, to be fair, heeded the last suggestion, for Christina bore him three further children after his second marriage. But, for the rest, he was adamant. Margarete and her mother, he wrote, would rather be torn to pieces than incur such a dishonour:

We are willing to reply as long as it is possible in dubious and

ambiguous terms, but to say that there is no marriage, that advice should be given to another, and not to us. We cannot and will not lie, for lying does nobody any good, and besides [to show that he, too, knew his Bible] God has forbidden false witness.

The only effect of this sterile round of letters was to cause mounting irritation all round. Philip decided that the one hope of breaking out of the impasse was to meet round a table and thrash out the disagreements. And, at his request, delegates from himself and the Elector met with Luther at the Eisenach Conference and battled over the issue for four whole days (15 to 19 July).

Any hope of agreement soon faded. Luther upbraided the Hessians for having revealed the details of the marriage, which Philip's men indignantly denied. The dispensation, Luther went on, was valid only for the Landgrave's conscience, and ceased to have meaning if it became known. A private Yes signified a public No. Hence, if the news of the Deliberation leaked out, he would deny its existence. He did not accept the view that what was right in God's eyes was automatically right in itself. For instance, a child by a man other than the husband must be regarded as the legitimate heir.

As a statesman of the church, the Reformer dwelt on the disastrous consequences of a public defence of bigamy. Most of the Lutheran clergy (and all the Calvinists) were opposed root and branch to it. If he were known to have countenanced it, however discreetly, the Protestant church would be rent by a schism. And, if he were to defend his action in writing, the results would be even more appalling.

Quite apart from the purely ecclesiastical aspects of the case, the rules of public morality could not be flouted. If they were, the whole Empire would collapse in anarchy. More concretely, the Emperor would intervene, and Philip, discredited by his unorthodox marriage, would see his army melt like snow.

Luther therefore made no bones about calling on Philip to tell

a good strong lie' for the sake of the church. If the Emperor were to question him, the Landgrave should reply that he did indeed have a concubine, and that he was willing to send her away if all the other princes with a similar attachment would do the same. If Philip were really determined to publish the Deliberation, he (Luther) would take the whole blame on himself and admit that he had blundered, but this was a counsel of desperation.

The Elector's men were equally forthright. The Landgrave's action, they maintained, was against God and public morality, and could not be defended, however close the links between Hesse and Saxony. Philip would have liked to have submitted his case to a General Council of the Protestant movement in Germany and ask the other princes to guarantee him protection until judgment had that been given. But the Elector was afraid, and with good reason Philip would use any such assurance to force the issue into the open, and thus involve the Saxons in what had every appearance of being

a major war - and one fought on very dubious grounds.

The Landgrave, for his part, was just as intransigent. In a letter dated 18 July to his delegates, he expresses bitter disappointment with 'the inconstancy of Luther and the Elector'. He realizes that Luther is a contrary character who digs in his toes the more one contradicts him. He therefore counsels moderation in dealings with the Reformer.

But he himself tackles the Reformers vigorously in some of their arguments, and to considerable effect. He is accused of having had an affair with Margarete before he married her. He flatly denies the charge. He is asked why he chose Margarete and not another, as if his love for Margarete were the cause and not the occasion of the bigamy. He points out that he could easily have had any other girl from the aristocracy on the same conditions. And he agrees that he married Margarete because he was fond of her. But, he says, 'I see that you holy people also take those you fancy.' Had he been allowed to follow his inclinations in his first marriage, the whole debacle might have been avoided.

But the central argument is the one advanced by John of Leyden:

'Better several wives than several whores.' He had been repeatedly urged to desist from immorality, but the whole point of the marriage was to enable him to stop fornicating. Had he taken another whore, he would have been left in peace. But, because he fell in love with a girl and married her, he is being bounded and deserted. How can be be pilloried for following the example of the Patriarchs, including the pious Abraham?

He realizes that his conduct may cause offence, but he is not prepared to spare others' feelings at the cost of his own salvation. 'Oh, would to God', he cries Luther, 'that you and your colleagues would chastise such vices as adultery and drunkenness not merely in word and speech but also in fact.'

He is horrified at the prospect of Luther revoking the Deliberation. 'Oh God, dear Doctor Luther,' he writes, 'what are we coming to ... when excellent people suffer a falling off for fear of other scholars, ... and even only of the world.... If you can answer for the marriage before God, why such fear as regards the world?' His action was Christian, and, if the theologians think otherwise, they should not have lent it their moral sanction by attending the ceremony.

The most that he will promise is to maintain his previous line of equivocation. But he will not lie. Let them crucify him if they will. If the situation becomes intolerable, he will publish the Deliberation and fight for what he regards as a perfectly legitimate marriage. As for the Elector, his delegates should be informed that he (Philip) will no longer act as a Captain of the Protestant cause and that they should withdraw from all negotiations with France for a grand alliance against the Emperor, and take precipitate leave - pretexting urgent business at home. The break was complete, although apearances were saved.

The Eisenach Conference marked a turning point in Philip's relations with the Protestant movement. He had always threatened to turn to the Emperor if his brothers in the faith refused to stand by him. Now they had abandoned him. In July (probably immediately after he learned of the result of the Conference), he drafted a plan of reconciliation; in September it was put into effect. Negotilations between the Landgrave's ambassadors and the Imperial Secretary dragged on, till at last (in January of the following year) Philip demanded a straight reply to the proposals and obtained (on the 24th of that month) a written pardon from the Emperor and a safe conduct to the Imperial Diet at Regensburg for which he set out on 1 February. In return, he made a number of far-reaching political concessions. Under the terms of the agreement, Philip undertook to exclude France and any other non-German power from the Protestant Alliance (the League of Schmalkalden). This move decisively altered the balance of power in Europe in favour of the Emperor - and most historians trace the decline of Protestantism as a political force in Europe back to this agreement.

Philip's defection was not the end of Luther's troubles. The bigamy offered Catholic pamphleteers too good an opportunity of ridiculing and vilifying their opponents. And a steady stream of scurrility poured out, attacking Philip and his Munsterite ways'. The Landgrave, with his militant convictions, could not resist the urge to reply. For his defence, he turned to his specialist on polygamy, an ex-Carthusian called Lening. This preacher had already composed more than a score of briefs on the subject, including fifteen for the Eisenach Conference and several to set Margarete's conscience at ease. He is not reported as having actually put his theories into practice, but for him monogamy was far from monotonous. He maltreated his first wife, and then, when her sufferings were ended, married, at the ripe age of eighty, one of Margarete's maids.

In response to this latest appeal by Philip, Lening surpassed himself and produced what is the first full-scale apologia for polyamy in Europe, the Dialogus Neobuli which, despite its Latin title, was written in German. Philip meant to ensure that his point of view was placed within the reach of the literate public and not just of a learned elite!

The book is, as the title indicates, in the form of a discussion between a supporter of plural marriage and an opponent. It is a remarkable work. 'In spite of its involved sentences and repetitious mode of argument', says one critic, 'the Dialogue is written with great skill, so as to make bigamy [or rather polygamy] appear not only right, but, if that is admitted, attractive.' The work is far too long to analyse. The essence of the argument is that polygamy is not contrary to divine, natural, canonical or Imperial law. Opposition to it has come solely from a perverted view of marriage as something evil in itself and a desire to be holier than God Himself. Polygamy, Lening concludes, would alleviate the prevailing immorality and help to drive back the Turks who were then pressing on the south-east flank of Europe. Polygamy was not of course to be made obligatory. It was only for those who felt a calling, as men in the Middle Ages had responded to a vocation for celibacy.

The book was referred to Bucer for his comments, and he not only examined it, but 'corrected and improved it a little', as he admitted. Indeed, as late as 1900, he was credited with having written it. He did, however, try to restrain the Landgrave from publishing it, but the most that he could achieve was that the work be distributed privately -in mid-August 1541.

For Philip's missionary zeal in the cause of polygamy was unabated. He took the clergy to task for faintheartedness when they remonstrated with him. 'If', he wrote to Melanchthon, 'we, you, Luther and others suffer death, yet there will be found people who more godly and trusting than we who will accept this solution which is not forbidden by God and is free and permissible.'

Far from contemplating martyrdom in the cause of polygamy, the Lutheran clergy was outraged at Lening's book. Luther had to persuade a friend of his, Justus Menius, to hold back a counterblast to the Dialogue, but Luther himself castigated the author as a garrulous fool. He also composed a refutation of which one of the milder passages reads: 'Whoever follows this idiot and his book and thereupon takes more than one wedded wife, and desires his action to be regarded as righteous - may the devil bury him in the abyss of hell.'

But Luther in his turn was restrained by the Elector from publishing his work. After a long estrangement, Philip and the Reformer finally met. The discussion was remarkably cordial, Luther merely criticized Lening's book for having used too many arguments of unequal force, rather than a few really sound ones. And Philip thereupon withdrew as many copies of the Dialogue from circulation as he could.

Somehow, the wounds healed and the scandal died down. An open break between the Landgrave and the Protestant Church was avoided, and the issue of polygamy was shelved. (The fact that Philip soon afterwards took his troops into battle for the Protestant cause, and suffered defeat and imprisonment at the hands of the Emperor no doubt helped to reconcile the former hostile allies.) It was not till well on in the seventeenth century that the Wittenberg Deliberation and the other documents on the bigamy were published by the great French Catholic controversialist, Bossuet, and used to devastating effect in his Variations of the Protestant Church (1688).

Nowadays, the whole episode leaves most readers unmoved, if not unamused. Old Testament polygamy has long ceased to be of interest. And Philip's bigamy is mainly interesting as an illustration of the eternal conflict between the crusader who puts principles above everything else and the lets the realist who lets practical considedrations weigh heavily in the scales. But, if Luther

showed great statesmanlike qualities in his handling of the affair, it is Philip who comes out of it most creditably, if the moral issues alone are examined.

He had scored a very shrewd hit by insisting on the revolutionary character of priestly marriage, introduced by the Reformation. If, he asked, it should suddenly be possible to overthrow such a firmly established institution as the celibacy of the clergy, why should the institution of bigamy be a priori excluded? The only effective answer would have been that polygamy is condemned by Christian doctrine. This is the reply which most Protestant thinkers (such as Calvin) have been stamped unequivocally as a radical or a heretic. But this was a stand that Luther and his colleagues never took - and for very good reasons. They could not. They themselves did not believe that polygamy was against divine or natural law. They took their stand solely on grounds of expediency.

Luther, it is true, had curious views on a number of subjects, including sex. 'Had God consulted me,' he wrote, 'I would have advised Him to propagate the species by fashioning human beings out of clay, the way Adam was created.' However, sexual activity was an essential part of life (though sinful), like eating and drinking. Luther even alleged that Jesus had probably committed adultery with Mary Magdalene and other women in order to partake fully of the nature of man.

But the main reason for his indulgence to polygamy had little direct connection with sex. His attitude stemmed from a problem that had faced the Church from the beginning - how to defend certain acts of the patriarchs which were of questionable morality when judged by Christian ethics. The Manichaeans (an early Christian sect), for example, had laid it down that Abraham was not a Christian since he was guilty of sensuality in his conjugal relations. Saint Augustine immediately sprang to his defence. Abraham, he argued, had lived more chastely with his several wives than most men in monogamy, and in any case polygamy in his time was the custom, and hence no sin. Luther took the same line. For him, Abraham was the first Christian 'and more important than all the Popes together'. His morals had to be stoutly defended. And so, right from the start, Luther lays it down that polygamy is not wrong in itself, and definitely preferable to divorce. He was never to diverge from this position.

He had frequently occasion to pronounce on the question himself Early in 1525, a pastor called Karlstadt sponsored a request from one of his congregation for permission to take a second wife, since his first one was a leper. Luther replied that the man's confessor must first give his permission. He himself could not forbid such a marriage, but he would not advise it either. What was permissible must often be sacrificed for the general good. In 1526, Philip, who was even then looking for a way out of his marriage troubles, asked Luther whether polygamy was permissible in principle. The reply ran that no Christian should have more than one wife, because that would give offence, and because there was no positive word from God suggesting that polygamy be revived. Heathens and Turks might do as they pleased. True, some of the patriarchs had been polygamous, but it was because they had a definite reason (such as the need for progeny). A Christian, before adopting polygamy, must first have a calling from God. Plural marriages, therefore, were to be rejected except in case of extreme need. Philip did not insist, and the matter was dropped for the time being.

A little later, Luther admitted (contrary to the doctrine of the Catholic church) that polygamous converts had been admitted into the early church.

His convictions were put to the test when, in 1531 he was asked by one of Henry VIII's agents whether that king could regard his marriage with Catherine of Aragon as void - the annulment of his marriage being an essential precondition of wedding Anne Boleyn and having a male heir. Most of the theological authorities consulted (many for interested reasons) agreed that he could repudiate his queen. Luther - as well as bucer and Melanchthon - took the opposite view, and advised him to keep Catherine but take a second wife. 'I would allow the King', wrote Luther, 'to take another queen

in accordance with the examples of the patriarchs of old who had two wives at the same time.'

Melanchthon was equally favourable to this course. 'Henry', he opined, 'could try to obtain a male heir without any peril to his conscience or to anyone else's by a second marriage.' He would not, however, concede polygamy to all. And he added the piquant observation that the Pope would, in his view, accord the necessary dispensation 'as an act of love'. If such permission were refused, Henry should disregard the Pope's ban and take a second wife notwithstanding.

Bucer joined his voice to those of his fellow Reformers. Bigamy, which had been practised by the patriarchs, could not be denied to Christians in modern times. It was in accordance with the law of Moses and did not offend against decency.

Philip was well aware that these pronouncements formed a very strong card in his hand. His brief to Bucer goes over the familiar Biblical propositions from which, he was certain, Luther could not dissent. There were the patriarchs who walked (unreproved for their numerous wives) with God, the absence of a ban on polygamy in the New Testament (despite the long list of things forbidden to new converts), the injunction in Timothy that a bishop should have only one wife (and hence that others might have more). And later he was to draw the conculsion from the situation as to the early converts. If it is possible for a Christian to keep his many wives a man can

be a Christian and take more than one wife.'

If it makes effective play with the Reformers' opinions on Henry VIII's submission. If that King could be allowed a second marriage, why not he? Admittedly, Henry needed a male heir to avoid civil war. But he, Philip, would suffer damnation unless he was helped to put a stop to his sins by a second marriage. And were not spiritual matters more deserving of care than mere worldly issues such as the stability of the English government?

And so, when Bucerlearned of the Landgrave's proposal, he found

it difficult to resist, not only on political, but also on theological

grounds. The Reformer subjected himself to a long examination of

conscience, the results of which are recorded in a work (not published

till 1878) which sets out the arguments for polygamy and those

against. The nub of this exhaustive dissertation is that polygamy

should be left to the individual conscience. Like marriage, it is a remedy against fornication. Each case must be judged according to its need, and, for Bucer, there was little doubt, in the light of Philip's sad tale of spiritual and physical woes, that the Landgrave's need was real and justified.

Luther and Melanchthon were equally vulnerable to Philip's theological arguments. They were in the dilemma where the poor heart would fain deny but dare not. The agonies stemming from their hesitation are visible at almost every turn in the Wittenberg Deliberation. The document agrees that polygamy (though inferior to the ideal of monogamy laid down in the Bible) was allowed under the Mosaic Law, and was not forbidden in the New Testament. It is permissible in the case of a man with a leper wife or of a captive who badly needs to be looked after. Provided that the approval of the confessor is forthcoming, therefore, a dispensation may also be given in cases of extreme need. But all this does not alter the rule of outward life, and there can be no question of a general introduction of bigamy. Hence, to avoid offence, the dispensation in Philip's case must be secret.

Small wonder that Luther found it difficult to defend his position at the Eisenach Conference. All he could muster by way of theological argument was that his earlier writings should not be regarded as infallible, and that he was learning every day. Who could say what he would change next in his theories? Paul had said: 'Let every man have his own wife', and there were no examples of polygamy in the New Testament. Luther was usually more cogent than this.

The truth is that the Deliberation was taken on political, not doctrinal grounds, and Luther knew it. The same considerations had prevailed when he advised Henry VIII to take another wife (though his horror of divorce was genuine enough). That approval, as he was later to put it, was accorded because bigamy was more tolerable than a situation in which both country and people would be torn asunder in civil war. Luther was at that point in time not so concerned about the possible extension of bigamy to the lower orders. The Munsterite rebellion lay in in the future. And besides, England was a foreign country, and a Catholic one at that (since Henry had not yet broken with the Pope), so that there was no danger of the King going over to the other side.

For Bucer, political considerations - those of status in particular - were just as important as for Luther. Latitude for bigamy, he wrote, 'as the Scriptures show, is accorded more generously to Kings than to others ... and hence should be refused least of all to great lords'.

The decision was political, too, in Philip's case. If he were not given his way, he would defect to the Emperor and work against the Reformation. 'It was', said Luther, 'an emergency that could only be patched up with the help of Moses [i.e., of the Mosaic law]'. But the threat was a serious one only because of the Landgrave's power and rank. Luther was far less forthcoming to the anonymous but humble petitioner of 1525 afflicted with a leper wife. Conversely, he was shocked to learn that Philip had committed bigamy with

lady-in-waiting and not a simple peasant girl.

There is no need to veil one's face at the Reformer's recognition of the power of social hierarchy in the sixteenth century. He was merely taking account, as any statesman should, of the dominant forces at work. In particular, he dreaded the impact of a bigamous marriage contracted by someone of Philip's standing. 'The actions of princes', quoted the Deliberation rightly, 'cause more of a stir than those of private persons.' Others, down to 'the veriest clodhopper', would seek to copy such a prestigious example. There is no mystery as to the ideas guiding Luther's policy in the whole affair. He was obsessed by the danger to social stability inherent in peasant revolts such as the risings of the 'twenties when he had urged on the German rulers to hunt down 'the mad dogs' and suppress the revolt in a river of blood. And more recently (and even more pertinently) there was the visionary Munsterite Kingdom in which polygamy had formed a diabolical adjunct to the wildest social radicalism. If, as Bucer explicitly feared, popular agitation were to find leaders in the nobles eager to introduce polygamy, a match would be set to a powder barrel which might blow up the whole of Germany. And, had Bucer's nightmare been realized, the whole evolution of European mores would have been utterly different.

Random Selection of Articles Published on the End Time Issue Ministries Mailing List Since the Day of Atonement 2009

2010.12.07 Will you fast with me on the sun gods birthday?

An appeal to observe a three day fast over 25 December every year as a statement of committment to Yah and opposition to pagan lies in the body of believers

2012.06.14 Yah hates divorce -- BUT ...

Following on the article with regard to the practical spiritual measures required to fully sever the spiritual ties between a man and a woman this article discusses the basis of putting away {divorce} and why, though Yah says He hates divorce, there ARE circumstances when divorce is permissible.

2014.11.01a The Creator Desires a Deep Personal Relationship with YOU

The Almighty Creator desires a deep personal relationship with YOU -- this article explains the context to this, the basics of what is going on in the world today and the rewards available to those who respond favorably to this invitation

2012.08.03 Believers who beg -- witchcraft

A number of people have asked for money in recent weeks, several of them persistently and insistently, two using charismatic witchcraft to try and manipulate the writer.


This article addresses life by faith and makes it clear that this ministry will NOT help people who beg but only those who Yah indicates should be helped -- something that happens infrequently because funding others is NOT the purpose of this ministry.

2000.09.02 Part 7: Conclusion: Marriage Teachings

Closure of the series of teachings with regard to marriage made in 2000 in association with a period of prayer and fasting after seeking Yah for guidance with regard to marriage from 1995

2013.12.05 Father's COMPASSION towards MANY Afrikaner WOMEN – DIVORCE

The previous article addressed the wrong conduct of many Afrikaner men NOT all, there ARE many Afrikaner men who ARE close to the Almighty

This article addresses the situation specifically of those Afrikaner women who ARE close to the Almighty and are in covenant with / married to those men who are in grievous sin and / or seriously abusing their women

Because of the harsh judgment that has now been unleashed on South Africa the Almighty will extend special grace to women in this situation and will grant them divorce where possible

This article discusses the basis for such divorce

2012.11.22 South Africa - The Covenant is NO MORE

In response to the video of Mr Jacob Zuma, the President of South Africa, singing "shoot the boer" allegedly at the Centenary Celebration of the African National Congress on 8 January 2012  the day after Yah declared that there would be massive revolution and destruction, Yah declares that the Covenant between black and white in South Africa has been violated and is no longer of effect (likewise the Constitution) and that a full scale genocidal race war will, in time, occur UNLESS President Zuma and the ANC leadership repent and turn away from such genocidal songs and talk

It is vital to understand that the singing of this song by the President carries far more weight than if it is sung by anyone else, when it is sung by the President publicly in front of a large audience who join in, as in this video, the spiritual impact is huge!

2011.03.13 There is NO planet X

There are various alarming reports of a rogue planet about to strike the earth in claimed fulfillment of prophecy

2011.04.04 How many times have you snubbed Daddy Yah today?

How much do you care for your Father in Heaven?

WHY Believe in the Almighty Creator and seek relationship with Him

IF YOU do NOT believe that the Almighty Creator exists and therefore do NOT have a personal relationship with Him you face a terrible fate when you COULD be blessed for eternity

The Creator has said regarding YOU "why would I want someone to spend eternity with me when they do NOT believe I exist?

Please go immediately to the WHY Believe page and give careful consideration to what is presented there

IF you have a DEEP inner conviction of the reality of the Creator, in other words you claim to be a "believer", but you do NOT have a deep personal relationship with Him such that He speaks to you clearly and regularly and you seek His guidance in every area of your life then He has said of you “why would I want someone to be close to me in Heaven, which inherently means I will give them great authority, if they do NOT have a deep personal relationship with me and have NOT proven to me that they can be trusted?”

Please go immediately to the Relationship with Yah page


Dr James Robertson PrEng, emissary and spokesman of Yah, founder of End Time Issue Ministries

Dr James A Robertson is called as an emissary {Apostle} and spokesman {prophet} of Yah, the Almighty Creator and has been set-apart for a number of years writing and publishing what he believes that the Almighty has said to him.

Read more >

Contact James at


An Engineering approach to the matters of the Almighty Creator of the Heavens and the Earth whose true name is Yah the Eternally Self-Existing

By "engineering approach" is meant rigorous, precise, verified, tested, proven, questioning, critical, investigative, scientific, analytical, evolving, improving practical, no nonsense, learn from mistakes, intolerant of sloppiness, realistic, REAL



This site is growing -- Re Blank Pages

As the site grows we from time to time add blocks of new pages which may NOT contain content for a while -- please accept my apologies for the inconvenience, you may find the information you require elsewhere on the site, alternatively email me for the information you are seeking
Note that words in curly brackets {} are words that although they are in common use are inaccurate in terms of the matters of the Almighty and should therefore be avoided

The Almighty Creator, Yah the Eternally Self-Existing, says: "It is time to choose -- will you be my friend, or my foe? -- there is NO middle ground!"

Yah says further:

"Ultimately THE AIM of this entire experiment is to find those who will make the sacrifices necessary to become My FRIENDS -- NOTHING is more important"
"A friend is one who is concerned about the well-being of the one they call friend and desires to treat that person as they would be treated -- HOW do you choose to treat Me?"
"True friendship is about what you can GIVE -- NOT what you can GET! -- what are YOU prepared to give Me (Yah)?"
"A true friend seeks to know ALL truth about the one whom they call friend AND to help others to know that truth -- Do YOU know the truth about me? Do YOU care?"
"In this age I (Yah) am MASSIVELY CONSTRAINED by the 'Rules of Engagement' in terms of what I can say and do EXCEPT through those true friends and true servants who will do the necessary work to KNOW my will AND proclaim it AND action it"
"There is NO greater love than that a man should lay down his life for his friend! -- Will YOU lay down your life for Me?"
"Technically a martyr is one who lays down their life for Me, NOT necessarily in physical death but also by sacrificing their comfort and well being in favour of doing MY will -- will you do ALL that it takes to serve Me and love Me as your friend, NO MATTER what it costs you? -- Will you be a martyr for Me by your way of living?"
"My true friends take time to spend quality time with Me daily and communicate with Me and consult Me constantly"
"Why Believe?
"Because if you do NOT you WILL find that when you die you are forced to serve and worship Satan for ever or at least until the day the winner of the 'The Contest' is adjudicated
"Realize that serving Satan after you die could be a really HORRIBLE experience, particularly IF you regard yourself as a GOOD person!"
"Imagine what it will be like as an ancestor spirit (demon) knowing the truth about the lies you believed and watching your loved ones making the same mistakes and believing the same lies that you believed and being unable to do anything about it!"
"Imagine what it will be like when you discover that you are irrevocably locked into the same dispensation that is behind the most barbaric and savage cultures on earth"
"IF you are a 'GOOD' person: when you die you may find yourself secretly hoping that Satan WILL lose 'The Contest' so that you can be cast into the Lake of Fire and utterly consumed in a moment of torment and terror, rather than being a participant in the progressive degradation of the human race into utter depravity, barbarism and perversion! -- and yet you will be POWERLESS to do anything about it!"
"The consequences of dying without a PROFOUND realization of my (Yah's) existence AND a DEEP life changing decision to serve Me is too ghastly to contemplate IF you take the trouble to REALLY understand the truth about the world you live in!"
"Imagine what it will be like to be a demon (ancestor spirit) riding on your favourite grandchild and watching them participate in the same empty rituals and mouthing the same meaningless platitudes that you practised during your life and being UNABLE to warn them of the terrible destiny that they are locking themselves into!"
"A person who reaches the end of their life as my TRUE FRIEND, one who has progressed from 'Wise Steward', to 'Good and Faithful Servant', to 'Overcomer' and ultimately to 'Friend' will receive rewards and authority of unimaginable splendour including a high throne, status and apparel that is far beyond anything that even the most powerful rulers on earth have ever dreamed of, let alone experienced -- contrast this with the other extreme -- an angry and depraved ancestor spirit (demon) desperately seeking favour in a kingdom where favour is a lesser level of torment and the right to exercise greater control and depravity over those less inclined to serve Satan and his Masterminds  wholeheartedly"
"Do YOU REALLY want to be part of a kingdom where the tortured murder of infants is regarded as one of the highest privileges of rank?"
"The evidence is ALL around you IF you have eyes to see -- the choice is CLEAR -- a Kingdom of beauty, love (chesed) and benign power or a kingdom of atrocities and perversion, a kingdom that regards torture and tormented and protracted death of human sacrifices followed by cannibalism, preferably while the victim still lives, as the HIGHEST form of worship?"
"It is TIME for those who still have some smattering of knowledge of me and my ways to STOP playing games with Satan and start taking back this earth while there is STILL TIME -- it is time for believers to STOP marrying unbelievers and allowing their children to marry unbelievers,, it is TIME to STOP marrying those from Satan worshipping cultures, and to STOP welcoming them into your homes, your cities and your lands -- it is time to STOP acceding to Satanic demands that you cast ME (The Almighty) out of your schools, your halls of Government and your workplaces -- it is TIME to publicly open the day with worship and prayer to me, whether in your places of education, your places of Government or your places of work -- it is TIME to cast out those who will NOT comply instead of being cast out and secretively serving me behind locked doors and, IF you CANNOT set apart that place of learning, or government or work then EXIT PUBLICLY and DECLARE your reasons and gather together with those who WILL agree with you in these matters for it is so that in the spirit one TRUE believer FREE OF SIN can put 1,000 to flight and two can put 10,000 to flight and the power of TRUE BELIEVERS who choose to deal with ALL their sin and live in ALL truth is such that massive transformation IS possible -- note the impact of Noah, Abraham, Moshe {Moses}, Yahooshua {Jesus}, Mohammed and Luther -- YOU TOO can bring about RADICAL reformation and renaissance IF you will lay down your life and seek DEEP and ENDURING FRIENDSHIP with Me!"
"IF you believe, it is TIME to assess exactly WHAT you believe about me and then ACT accordingly!"
"IF you do NOT believe, it is time to assess EXACTLY what you DO believe and then act accordingly!"
"There is NO place for fence sitters -- YOU are either FOR me or by default you are AGAINST ME!"
"Know this -- IF you choose to be a TRUE friend, which means you deal with ALL sin and ALL error and do ALL that is required to ensure that your house is FULLY united behind you the forces of darkness CANNOT TOUCH YOU -- BUT, IF you play games and continue to dabble in your favourite sins and errors in your divided house the forces of darkness will TEAR you limb from limb and UTTERLY destroy you -- there has NEVER been a time in all the history of man on earth where life above sin and total unity of your house has been more important!"
"IF you choose to serve ME (Yah), understand that you are choosing a VERY strait and VERY narrow path leading to a VERY small door -- gird your loins and FOLLOW the example of the mighty set-apart ones of previous generations!"

Footnote: ALL the above references to "friend" relate to people like you and me seeking to become true friends of Yah, the Almighty Creator

About names, words, etc

The majority of visitors to this site will encounter names and words they are NOT familiar with

It is a harsh reality that the true Name of the Almighty Creator of the Heavens and the Earth whose true Name is "Yah the eternally self-existing" has been concealed as have all the important names, laws, commandments, principles and concepts

What is taught by the "Christian" church is almost entirely incorrect as is the case with EVERY religion

This website seeks to present these truths for your prayerful consideration and adoption -- see the prayers elsewhere in this side bar for more information on what to pray

Key names and words that are used throughout this site and which are fundamentally important are:

The true Name of the Almighty Creator is "Yah the eternally self-existing", frequently translated as "Yahweh", more accurately "Yahooeh"

The name of the man commonly known as "Jesus" is "Yahooshua" meaning "Yah is salvation"

The commonly used names of "God", "The LORD", "Christ", "Jesus" are ALL of pagan, that is Satanic origin and the Almighty has only responded to these names as an act of Grace, this Grace has now been withdrawn



Business Interests -- James A Robertson and Associates -- The Business Systems Doctor

In addition to this ministry I operate a management consulting business specializing in the strategic application of computer based business information systems - a business in which Father has taught me many leading edge concepts, principles and methods


My logo is based on Professor Malcolm McDonald's strategy -- tactics matrix -- strategy, doing the right things horizontally and tactics, doing things right on the vertical axis -- if your organization does the right things well, it will thrive -- top right quadrant -- this is a fundamental principles when it comes to the matters of the Almighty as well

In my consulting work I seek to enable my clients to do the right things well

I regard Father as my partner, Chairman, counselor and I seek to conduct business in a way that is pleasing to Him, within the context of prayer that He will judge me severely and correct me harshly that I may serve Him more perfectly


I truly believe that Father has given me extremely high value knowledge and experience which will enable your organization, be it commercial, governmental or non-governmental to be more effective and efficient in its operations and, IF profit is your measuring stick, more profitable



I am based in London, United Kingdom and can be contacted for business purposes on

About the articles on this site

Most articles on this site are classified with a reference number comprising the year, the month and a sequence number within the month, thus 2013.12.03 is the third article published in December 2013

Most detailed webpages are organized with the most recent articles at the top and the Article List displays with the most recent articles at the top.  Searches on the articles list in the same way

Because I am constantly learning, newer articles will almost certainly be an elaboration or refinement of earlier articles and in some cases may significantly revise what I said in earlier articles, in most cases the later article is likely to be more accurate than earlier articles

In ALL cases Father Yah forbids me to go back and edit or correct articles, He wants YOU to have a close personal relationship with Him and therefore to turn to Him for clarification where things that I write contradict or appear to contradict one another

The articles from 2009 onwards are generally much more reliable than those earlier but there are important articles from the earlier days as well, in particular, the articles written in 2000 onwards were written during a period when my understanding was being radically changed on a very intense basis and when I was also getting closer to the Almighty at a very rapid rate

Accordingly the early articles should be given appropriate prayer, particularly if the later articles contradict or appear to contradict what is written in the early articles

That said Father Yah has said that there is much of value in the earlier articles and that they should, accordingly, remain on the site

Third Party Articles

This site includes some articles from third parties

In such cases Father Yah forbids me to censor, edit or correct such articles but requires me to present them in their entirety with little or no comment, as with the previous point He requires YOU to research and pray and reach your own conclusion regarding what is truth

Inclusion of third party articles does NOT indicate any form of endorsement of the person who wrote the article other than that it is my understanding that the article contains information of importance.  Such inclusion also does NOT imply any endorsement of this ministry by the person whose work is cited

It is up to each one of us to discern the truth for ourselves See the article on Seek Truth NOT Error for more information

Content you do NOT agree with

It is probable that you will find material on this site that you do NOT agree with, there is much that is highly controversial, click HERE for an article that proposes a way of responding to such differences

See also article -- Getting close to Yah -- Appropriate prayer and fasting are VITAL -- the answer to doctrinal differences


Important prayers to pray IF you believe that the Almighty Creator exists

IF you believe that the Almighty Creator exists then take note that He has said of YOU why would I want someone to be close to me in Heaven, which inherently means I will give them great authority, if they do NOT have a deep personal relationship with me and have NOT proven to me that they can be trusted?

IF you believe that the Almighty Creator DOES exist the following are amongst the most important prayers you can pray

Note that the true name of the Almighty Creator is "Yah the eternally self-existing" NOT "The LORD" or "God"

Father Yah, I ask you to help me to overcome to the end that I may be found to  be a "good and faithful servant" on the Day of Judgment

Father Yah I ask you to show me the level of my present deception and how to correct it

Father Yah I ask you to help me to draw MUCH closer to you and to know your will and to do it

Father Yah I ask you to fill me with your Spirit and lead me into ALL truth by your Spirit

Father Yah I give you my life to do with as YOU see fit

Father Yah I ask you to bring the people that YOU want into my life and to take the people that you do NOT want in my life out

Father Yah I ask you to open the doors in my life that YOU want open and to close the doors in my life that YOU want closed

Father Yah I ask you to judge me severely and correct me harshly that I may serve you more perfectly

There are many other prayers that you can pray but these are amongst the most important

See also the page on developing a close relationship with the Almighty at


Consolidated Volumes of Articles

We are in the process of assembling the articles on this site into annual volumes based on the lunar based cycles prescribed by the Almighty, the following volumes are currently available in Adobe pdf format

The full list of articles is available on the Articles page and also on the listing in this side bar

The documents are formatted for double sided printing

Vol 10 year 6006 from Creation: 29 Mar 2009 to 18 Mar 2010
Vol11 year 6007 from Creation: 18 Mar 2010 to 6 Apr 2011
 The documents are also available in Microsoft Word docx format on the detailed article listing in the side bar
Download the entire website in a format that you can run standalone on your computer with NO Internet connection and keep for future reference
From time to time we make a copy of the entire website in a format that you can download and run standalone on a local computer with NO Internet Connection, the file is about 6 GB in size and requires WinZip to open, click here to download

Articles on this site from 2009 to December 2013


The Creator Desires a Deep Relationship with YOU

Seven Components in Growing Close to Yah

Recommended Worship

Where will YOU Spend Eternity?

WHY Believe in the Almighty Creator and seek relationship with Him

What Actually Happens when someome comes to believe

The First Eight Days after first believing in the Creator

Triple Immersion as a powerful means of cleansing

Fasting as a vital component of being a believer

Worship is essential in drawing close to the Almighty

What to Read once you have come to belief

The First Year after coming to belief

Those who come to limited belief initially

Those who come to limited belief initially

The TRUE Name of the Creator is Yah the Eternally Self-Existing

The TRUE Names of the Almighty in the Bible -- Detailed Analysis -- Abstract

Objective, Technical Notes And Technical Caveat

Words Translated "God"

Names Including Yah

Further Words Which Refer To Yah

Names Including Yah

Additional Words Which Relate To Yah

Instances Of Jehovah And Jah = Yah In The Hebrew Lexicon Of The Online Bible

Instances Of Yah In The Hebrew Lexicon Of The Online Bible

Closure Regarding The Name Of Yah

This website is the culmination of applying Engineering Principles to the matters of the Almighty Creator since 1993

Yah, the Creator, desires to have deep personal relationships with people who become His friends

Creator Desires Deep Relationship

7 Components of Growing Close to Yah

Recommended Worship

Where will YOU Spend Eternity?


About James Robertson -- An engineering approach to religion and knowledge of the Most High Creator of the Heavens and the Earth, Yah the eternally self-existing

Headlines of the walk of James Robertson with the Almighty Creator (Yah the Eternally Self-Existing)

About End Time Issue Ministries

James Robertson's Business interests -- James A Robertson and Associates Limited -- Executive Level Consulting with Regard to the Effective High Value Application of Business Information Systems

What to do if you disagree with me

Our Logo

Building a close relationship with Yah the Eternally Self Existing, the Almighty Creator

Key Principles with regard to relationship with Yah

Why are we here?

Stages in the Relationship with the Almighty Creator

The Anointing of the Spirit of the Almighty

Worship of the Almighty

Prayer and petition to the Almighty

Prayer in agreement

Fasting as a vital component of drawing close to the Almighty

Hearing Yah

Judge me Severely and correct me harshly

Yah's Emotions -- He has feelings too

Daddy Yah is LONELY please talk to Him and use His true Name

Did YOU bring JOY to your Daddy Today?

Seeking to live a Life WITHOUT Sin

Overcoming and a High Throne

The Continuum between Yah and Satan

Drawing Closer to Yah

Drawing Close to Yah

Chesed = Covenant Love

Yah's Still Small Voice

Visions and Dreams

What IS Inspiration?

If Yah is moving Hold your Peace

The Authority of Believers

Obedience is a vital element of relationship

If you love Yah keep His commandments

You are NOT a glove puppet you ARE accountable

Sacrifice -- The Death of the Stake

Death with Yahooshua

Further Principles relating to Relationship with Yah

Who to Listen To

Even the highly anointed are falling away

Yah is everywhere

Relationship with Yah NOT worship of intellect

The Majority is ALWAYS Wrong

Specific Messages from the Almighty

Yah speaks to James

Yah speaks to the Church

Yah speaks to Believers Generally

Yah speaks to South Africa

Yah speaks to the World

Yah calls His Servants NOT Man

Yah works through His anointed ones

What IS Inspiration?

The Seventy Facets of Yah's Jewelled Words

A Guide to Receiving Personal Prophecy

Seek Truth

Seek Truth NOT Error

Yah's Commandments are BEST

Important Truths

Satan's Most Effective Lies

Pastors and the Church

The Contest

Rules of Engagement

Yah HAS to work through sons of Adam

Satan HAS to work through sons of Adam

The Forces of Darkness Rule on Earth and Yah is Constrained to act through believers

The REAL battle is between the highly anointed versus the highly illuminated ones

Descent into ALL Error

Yahooshua led a Life without Sin

Satan to the Pit

Recovering Lost Truth

A Son of Adam on the Last Day

IF Satan Wins the Contest

IF Satan Loses

Who ARE "Demons"

The Masterminds

Illuminated versus Anointed

Satan's Devices

Combat in the Heavenly Realm

Yah could do MUCH more in earlier years

All authority and dominion on earth has been given to humans, Yah and Satan are constrained to act through them


What IS Hell?

Why IS Hell?

Visits to Hell

Korean Artist

Bill Weise

Angelica Zambrano

Choo Thomas

No one is intentionally going to hell

There are good decent people in hell

Satan rules the world through the leadership of Demonic Masterminds and human Satan Servants

Satan to Pit 2003


Recommended Worship


Important Prayers

The Most Important Prayers


What IS Covenant?

The Blood of a Covenant Means Death to the Person who breaks the Covenant

Covenant between Man and Woman

Tattoos and Piercings


The Importance of Words

Words that Kill

Words that Bring Life

Right Confession

Words with Pagan / Satanic Impact

Words are Spiritual


Take Care is a Curse




The Bible

What to Read Instead

Old Testament versus New Testament

"The WORD" is Semantic Nonsense

The bible is the most pervasive idol

Diverse Articles relevant to the discussion about the Bible

The Essence of the issues relating to the Bible

Positive aspects of “The Bible”

Summing up re “The Bible”

About the Bible

The Arrogance of Christian Ignorance

Relationship with the Almighty NOT Worship of Intellect

Getting close to Yah Appropriate prayer and fasting are VITAL (the answer to doctrinal differences)

IF the Bible IS corrupt then WHAT do I do?

Satan’s Lies – Response to Rebuttal

“The bible is a corrupt book compiled by corrupt men”

The Majority is ALWAYS Wrong

Further Articles relevant to the discussion about the Bible -- Section 2

Bible study versus deep relationship

Demonically inspired bible versions -- rebuttal

Demonically inspired bible versions

Believers who abdicate their intellect

Your Heavenly Account

The contents of the bible are but a pin prick in the history of mankind

Clarification re THE WORD

New Testament? No No No

Further Articles relevant to the discussion about the Bible -- Section 3

Yah is at SOME measure in EVERY book (and so is Satan through his demons)

Clarification -- there IS good in the bible

The King James Version of the bible is NOT THE definitive English translation

Yah works through His anointed prophets NOT committees

The origin of the Christian bible

Those who followed Yahooshua did NOT know Torah

What IS inspiration?

The seventy facets of Yah's jeweled words

Further Articles relevant to the discussion about the Bible -- Section 4

The bible IS a useful reference work – period

Covenant – NOT New Testament

James: What do YOU believe about the bible? REALLY?

Pastors – the Prison Warders of Yah's people

Why Yah could do much greater works thousands of years ago (level of anointing and level of prayer)

Proof of a Global Flood -- Turning history on its head

Where will YOU spend eternity?

Are visions precise and free of error?

Understanding Satan's devices

Clergy versus laity

The Name of Yah in the book {bible}

The TRUE Names of the Almighty in the Bible -- Summary

What is the origin and the purpose of man? -- creation versus evolution

Older Articles -- Prior to 2009

Conclusion -- The Bible is NOT what is claimed for it

Yah (The Almighty) says that the bible is "the Greatest Idol" on earth today

Anointed Life

Anointed Life Part 1

What or Who IS an Anointed One?

Worship is Critical

Filled with the Spirit of Yah

Led by the Spirit of Yah

Guardian Messengers {Angels}


Death with Yahooshua

The Mind of Yah



Supply of Needs

Poverty in the Body of Believers

Anointed Life Part 2

Power Anointing

In the World NOT OF the World

Yah is everywhere

The Race

The Armour

Trust and Belief


Your Heavenly Account


Anointed Life Part 3

Good and Faithful Servant


Angelo beggar on a high throne

Authority of Believer

Works that Yahooshua did



Immersion NOT Baptism

Tearing Down Strongholds

The Battle

Spiritual Warfare

The 144,000

Single Anointed Women

Anointed Life Part 4









Let your Yes be Yes


Judge me Severely and correct me Harshly that I may serve You more perfectly

Seek Truth NOT Error

Anointed Life Part 5

Man and Woman in Harmony


Right Confession

Four phases of the Wilderness

Critical Success Factors for Life

Highly Anointed Ones Make Mistakes and Sin

Even the highly anointed are falling away



Body Mind and Spirit


Believe in Yah the Eternally Self-Existing, the Almighty

Chesed {love} the Almighty with all your heart, mind, soul and strength

Yah is ONE

Who IS Yah?

Who IS Yahooshua?

Who IS Satan?

Demonic "gods"

No Trinity

NO Idols

Not Worship the Bible

Not Worship Jesus

Not Worship Cross

Not Worship People

Not Worship Things

Name Yah NOT in Vain


Yes in Afrikaans and German

True Names

Keep Sabbaths

Day Begins at Sunrise

True Sabbath Saturday Sunrise

New Moons

1st Aviv

Pesach -- Passover

Shavuot -- Pentecost

Yom Teruah -- Day of Trumpets

Yom Kippur -- Day of Atonement

Sukkot -- Tabernacles 1st Day

Sukkot -- Tabernacles Great Day

False Sabbaths

Levites BREAK the Sabbath

Chesed {love} your Neighbor as yourself

Honor Parents


Curse Mother or Father and Die

NOT Old Age Homes

NO Murder

NO Abortion

NO Abortive Contraception

Death Penalty for Murder

WHY Death Penalty?

NO False Teachings

Anal intercourse is valid birth control

NO Adultery

What IS Adultery?

Breaking Covenant / Treachery


Male with Male

Female with Female


Serial Polygamy



Chick Flicks are Pornography TOO


Phone / Skype Sex

Oral and Anal Sex

Church Marriage

False Monogamy

NO Stealing

Most Prosperity Teaching is Fraud

Fraudulent Contracts

Misrepresentation in Sales

Outright Theft


NO False Witness or Lying

False Teaching by Church

False Teaching in Other Religions

Misrepresentation in Sales

White Lies

ALL Liars will burn

Believe Lies and Die

NO Coveting or Lusting



Most Adverts

Valentines Heart

Lust is visible in the spirit realm

The MARK of the Beast

All of the 10 Commandments as well as the Principal Commandment have been almost universally broken and made of NO effect

The Satanic

The Satanic Part 1

Who is Satan

Fallen Messenger

Principalities, Powers, Thrones, Dominions, etc

We wrestle NOT against flesh and blood

Combat in the Heavenly Realm

The Forces of Darkness Reign and Yah is constrained to act through believers

Illuminated Ones



Ancestor Spirits {Demons}


If Jesus is living in your heart you have a problem

The Satanic Part 2


Take Care is a Curse

Secret Societies

Free Masonry

The Authority of the Believer


Satan's Most Effective Lies

Lilith Adam's first wife

The Satanic Part 3

Treachery is a Spiritual Force

The Peace of Satan

Fear is Faith in the Satanic

Tsunami of Evil Covers the Planet

Satans Devices

What is REALLY happening

Satan sentenced to one thousand years in the Pit on 3 May 2003

Power from drinking blood

Power from eating human flesh

Power from murder

Satanic Dominion

General Satanic

True Names




Mighty One


My Darling Mighty One


Anointing of Yah


Other True Names

The TRUE name of the prophet from Nazareth is "Yahooshua" NOT "Jesus"

Blasphemous Names

Grace withdrawn






Other Incorrect Names



NOT Christ

True Sabbaths

Day Begins at Sunrise

True Sabbath Saturday Sunrise

New Moons

1st Aviv

Pesach -- Passover

Shavuot -- Pentecost

Yom Teruah -- Day of Trumpets

Yom Kippur -- Day of Atonement

Sukkot -- Tabernacles 1st Day

Sukkot Great Day

Year of Jubilee

Saturday is the 7th day of the week and is Yah's true weekly Sabbath

Satanic Feasts



On what day was Yahooshua born?


New Year

Valentine's Day

Other Satanic Feasts

Sunday Sabbath

Sunday is the Pagan day of the Sun god and is NOT appropriate for worshipping Yah, the Almighty Creator

Christmas is a Pagan Feast and is an abomination in the sight of the Almighty Creator

Yahooshua died on a Stake NOT a Cross

It is NOT Baptism it is Immersion

The Coninuum between Good and Evil


True Religion

The Great Falling Away

Even the highly anointed are falling away

Seek Truth NOT Error

The End of the Age



Most Christians are NOT Anointed Ones

The Church put Yahooshua to Death

If Jesus is living in your heart you have a problem

Clergy versus Laity

Judgement on the church of Jesus Christ

Planet X Nibiru


Believers who Beg

History Revisited

This Evil Generation

Christian Denominations

Roman Catholic


Jehovah's Witnesses




Who IS Allah

Other Religions

The Inquisitions have had a major impact on believers today

The upsurge of civilization following the Reformation, that is the Renaissance, masks the long term degradation of human beings over time

The turnaround prophets of history are Noah, Moshe, Yahooshua, Mohammed and Luther -- we need to understand their role to understand the world today

The True Religion of the Almighty Creator, Yah, is a synthesis of, and bracketed by, Judaism, Christianity and Islam

Christianity has from the outset compromized with paganism and almost every doctrine of Christianity is fatally corrupt and does NOT define the Creator

Tithes are Invalid in this age

Judaism is one of the three main religions serving the Creator

Islam is the third of the main religions serving the Creator


Yahooshua Part 1

Who IS Yahooshua

Yahooshua IS the mightiest CREATED being in the entire creation

Yahooshua was an OLD Testament Prophet

How DID Yahooshua Accomplish what he did?

Thank Yah that the Jews Killed Jesus

Why Yahooshua HAD to die THAT way

Father forgive them they do not know what they are doing

My Darling why have You forsaken me?

The Covenant of Yahooshua

As oft as you eat it in remembrance of Yahooshua

Death with Yahooshua

Yahooshua Part 2

Yahooshua is WAITING for his enemies to be made his footstool

What IS special about Yahooshua?

Yahooshua will return once the true message has been preached to ALL the earth

The Church put Yahooshua to Death

Authority IN the Name of Yahooshua

LIMITATIONS in the Name of Yahooshua

The Blood of the Covenant

Who Yahooshua is NOT

Old Testament versus New Testament

On what day was Yahooshua born?

Those who followed Yahooshua did NOT know Torah

Greater Works than Yahooshua did

There is NO Trinity

Yahooshua is NOT the ONLY way

The man Yahooshua, commonly called Jesus was and is a human being and is NOT the Creator

Yahooshua, commonly called "Jesus" will only return around 3003 and is NOT "coming soon"

The Great Falling Away is right now


Judgment in THIS Life

Judgment of Believers Who Die

Judgment of Unbelievers Who Die

The Day of Judgment

High Throne with Yahooshua

The Outer Darkness in Heaven

The Foolish Virgins in Heaven

The Lake of Fire and Brimstone

Satan to the Pit for a Thousand Years

Judgement on the church of Jesus Christ

Judgment at the End of the Age

Yahooshua is WAITING UNTIL his enemies are made his FOOTSTOOL

Yahooshua will return when the true message has been preached to ALL the world

No one is intentionally going to Hell

Few people are intending to become demons

Obedience as a Basis of Judgement

Judgment THIS Life





Judge me Severely and Correct me Harshly that I may serve You more Perfectly

Believing Men in Lack

Highly anointed ones also make mistakes and sin


Burn for Eternity Yes? or No?

Where will YOU Spend Eternity?

Part 1 of the eBook -- Where will YOU Spend Eternity?

A Critical Question

An Important Caveat

Where will YOU Spend Eternity?

A Vital question: Do we know what sin is? - What is the essence of Judgment?

Cause for Concern - Nearly ALL of mankind is breaking most of the commandments

Part 2 of the eBook -- Where will YOU Spend Eternity?

Is there an alternative? -- can one aspire to a High Throne?

It is NOT just heaven or the lake of fire, there is a continuum

It IS POSSIBLE to overcome

What indicators are there about pleasing the Almighty?

How do we overcome? What is the Price?

Some challenging passages from The Final Quest

Joyner's experience of the Judgment


The Final Quest by Rick Joyner

Yah speaks on Rick Joyner

The Call by Rick Joyner

Critical Success Factors for Life

Creation versus Evolution -- What is the Origin and Purpose of Man?

Engineered Creation

Sexual reproduction proves there is a Creator

Part 1 of the book What is the origin and purpose of man


An important assumption and some painful deductions

Some important preparatory points

Use of statistics from

Argument from Incredulity

Progressive development versus Instantaneous Creation

Other religions and spirits

Some other issues with certain religious views of creation

What next?

Part 2 of the book What is the origin and purpose of man


Does this mean deadlock?

A Different approach?

Some issues that arise from the above questions

Science - Engineering - Religion


Suggested principles for further analysis

"Planned (Engineered) Creative Evolution" versus "Unplanned (Unengineered) Spontaneous Evolution"

Part 3 of the book What is the origin and purpose of man

Evidence in Immediate Physical Environment

Tying up loose ends

Various bits and pieces

Some other considerations regarding creation versus evolution

Soft attributes of human beings

 If all else fails, ask for a "sign"?



The World Before the Flood

The Flood Itself

The World After the Flood

Understanding the Impact of the Flood

Why Millions of Years is Invalid

Flood Videos

Overview of the Flood Videos

Section 1 -- Proof of a Global Flood -- Introduction

Section 2: Gold Mines -- Evidence of Massive Hydraulic Flood Action

Section 3: Layered Sedimentary Rocks -- Evidence of a Global Flood

Section 4: The Halfwayhouse Granite Dome -- Massive Surface Disruption

Section 5: African Erosion Surface -- massive flood cutting action

Section 6: Incised Valley deep in massive Granite -- evidence of massive flood action

Section 7: The REAL Age of all this - a flood as recently as 4,500 years ago?

Section 8: Signs Of Judgment -- Real Mount Sinai and Ten Commandments

Section 9: Where DID the water came from? And where did it go? -- Proof of a Global Flood

Section 10: Summing Up -- Proof of a Global Flood

Section 11: End Notes -- Proof of Global Flood

There is global proof of a global catastrophe which is FAR beyond a "flood"

Evolutionary Creation is the ONLY practical explanation of what exists today


The Spiritual Nature of Sex

Yah Created Sex and it was good

The Virgins Covenant

Sex is a Covenant Act

The One-Flesh Bond

Making Love

Transfer of Demons

Soul Ties


Role of Man

Role of Woman

Monogamy and sexual lovemaking

The Bed is Undefiled

The Joy of Sex

Sex -- Permitted and Prohibited

"Sex Before Marriage"

One Night Stands

Men with Men

Women with Women

Anal Sex

Oral Sex




Sexual Thoughts


Spiritual Separation of Man and Woman

Coping with Sexual Need

The Virgin's Covenant is CRITICAL to understand sex, marriage, adultery and divorce

Men & Women

Men and Women and covenant

The Virgins Covenant

Age to Marry



Cleave is NOT Adhere

Isaiah 4:1

Men and Women and Family


Separation of Man and Woman







Is Polygamy Scriptural?



The Book -- The Scriptural Definition of Marriage, Adultery and Divorce

Preamble and Table of Contents

1: Introduction & Concepts

2: How does scripture define the marriage covenant?

3: What does scripture say about adultery?

4: Scriptural Divorce

5: Is monogamy scriptural?

6: Some other scriptures on marriage issues

7: The Tradition of the Elders and Other heresies

8: Consequences of the Heresy of Monogamy and Related false Doctrines

9: Summary and Conclusion

Appendices A to G

Appendices H to P

Appendices Q to V

Appendices W to Index of Key words

Man and Woman in Harmony

Marriage Strategy

Marriage Teachings

Part 1: The Coming Tribulation

Part 1: The Coming Tribulation


Part 3: Scriptural definition of Marriage, Divorce & Adultery

Part 4: Towards Heaven on Earth in Marriage

Part 5: Practical Application of Marriage Teachings

Part 6: Deliverance

Part 7. Conclusion

The Almighty designed us from the beginning such that one man can covenant with more than one woman, this is evidenced by the seal of virginity

There are seven times as many believing women as men on earth today so most need to remain celibate and single

The Responsibility of Believing men towards single believing women

A Letter to a Single Woman

The need of Single Women for Companionship

The impact of Wild Oats (children from casual sex) on the world today

The truth about Divorce



Yahs Commandments

Contest or Compromise

The Mark of the Beast

This Life


ALL are Seed of Noah

Nearly ALL alive on earth today are Seed of Abraham

Most of those alive today are Seed of Yisrael





Yahoodah {Judah}










Middle East


Babylon / Iraq


United Kingdom

Rest of Europe

North America


Central America and Bahamas

South America




The Curse of Canaan

South Africa


Rest of Africa

The Majority is Always Wrong


Yahoodite = Jew

Thank Yah that the Jews Killed Jesus

The Jews are Yisraelites and NOT Khazars

The Jews are Yisraelites and NOT Seed of Satan

Jews are NOT Ominipotent

Blessed for Relative Faithfulness


The Colour of a Person Tells Nothing About Their Bloodline

The Hammite African Spiritual Dispensation

The Curse of Canaan on many Africans


World Trade Center Demolition

New World Order etc

Do NOT Concern yourself with Conspiracy

Y2K (The Year 2000 Computer Fear) -- What WAS it? -- an immature believes conspiracy theory

The REAL Conspiracy



Annual Volumes





Articles Emailed

Creator Desires a Deep Personal Relationship with YOU

Seven Components of Drawing Close to the Almighty

Where will YOU Spend Eternity?

6010 (2013/4)

6011 (2014/5)

Particularly Important Articles and other Resources

Insights that I have gained into various topics from day to day

Table of Contents of the body of the Website

Articles to 2009 (6005)


List of Articles from 2009

Article Keyword Cloud

Article Categories

Contact Us


The REAL Contest

What IF Satan WINS?

Satanic Dominion

Where are YOU headed for Eternity?

What should YOU do about the direction of your life today?

The ULTIMATE GOAL -- deep personal friendship with the Almighty Creator of the Heavens and the Earth

The ULTIMATE SIN -- unbelief -- believing the Almighty Creator does NOT exist -- by default allegiance to Satan

The TRAP to prevent you achieving the goal of deep personal relationship with the Creator -- Jesus, the Bible, the Church and Pastors and other people

If you have questions