How does scripture define the marriage covenant?

This section examines the importance of virginity in great detail

Note that there is MAJOR ERROR in this text insofar as references are made to JESUS marrying millions -- Yah the Eternally Self-Existing, the Almighty Creator is married to those of us who believe through the infilling of His Spirit in us, that INCLUDES Yahooshua as the HEAD of the bride

See also the page on the Virgin's Covenant

2: How does scripture define the marriage covenant?




In order to lay the foundation for this book, let us first determine the scriptural definition of marriage and the marriage covenant:


In order to define marriage, let us see what the Bible says. Deuteronomy 22:13-21 states:

13 "If any man takes a wife, and goes in to her, and detests her,

14 "and charges her with shameful conduct, and brings a bad name on her, and says, 'I took this woman, and when I came to her I found she was not a virgin,'

15 "then the father and mother of the young woman shall take and bring out the evidence of the young woman's virginity to the elders of the city at the gate.

16 "And the young woman's father shall say to the elders, 'I gave my daughter to this man as wife, and he detests her;

17 'now he has charged her with shameful conduct, saying, "I found your daughter was not a virgin," and yet these are the evidences of my daughter's virginity.' And they shall spread the cloth before the elders of the city.

18 "Then the elders of that city shall take that man and punish him;

19 "and they shall fine him one hundred shekels of silver and give them to the father of the young woman, because he has brought a bad name on a virgin of Israel. And she shall be his wife; he cannot divorce her all his days.

20 "But if the thing is true, and evidences of virginity are not found for the young woman,

21 "then they shall bring out the young woman to the door of her father's house, and the men of her city shall stone her to death with stones, because she has done a disgraceful thing in Israel, to play the harlot in her father's house; so you shall put away the evil from among you.

Deuteronomy 22:14 in Lamsa's translation states:

14 And give an occasion of speech against her, charging her with adultery, and bring an evil name upon her, and say, I took this woman, and when I lay with her, I found her not a virgin. (LAM)

This translation clearly equates the lack of virginity with evidence of adultery.

Deuteronomy 22:14 in the New International Version states:

14 and slanders her and gives her a bad name, saying, "I married this woman, but when I approached her, I did not find proof of her virginity," (NIV)

This translation more clearly indicates that the man approached the young woman to consumate the marriage but, presumably on inspection, found her not to be a virgin.

Deuteronomy 22:19 in the King James Version states:

19 And they shall amerce him in an hundred shekels of silver, and give them unto the father of the damsel, because he hath brought up an evil name upon a virgin of Israel: and she shall be his wife; he may not put her away all his days. (KJV)

Consider also Deuteronomy 22:28-29 in the King James version:

28 If a man find a damsel that is a virgin, which is not betrothed, and lay hold on her, and lie with her, and they be found;

29 Then the man that lay with her shall give unto the damsel's father fifty shekels of silver, and she shall be his wife; because he hath humbled her, he may not put her away all his days. (KJV)

Supplementing this scripture, Exodus 22:16-17 states:

16 "If a man entices a virgin who is not betrothed, and lies with her, he shall surely pay the bride-price for her to be his wife.

17 "If her father utterly refuses to give her to him, he shall pay money according to the bride-price of virgins. (NKJ)

I will present some comments and interpretation based on Deuteronomy 22:13-21 together with the subsequent scriptures and then corroborate it with further scriptures. Most of the scriptures referring to virginity are listed in Appendix A, page 224, for your convenience. Section 17, page 75 provides a more detailed interpretation of Deuteronomy 22:28-29 and Exodus 22:16-17 under the title "one night stands".


These scriptures give rise to the following comments:

i. The evidence of the woman's virginity is without doubt a cloth used to collect the blood shed from the young woman's hymen when she was penetrated in sexual intercourse the first time.

ii. I do not believe that there is any disagreement that the word "virgin" in the context of a woman refers to a woman who has never had sexual intercourse and, in scriptural terms, whose hymen is intact.

iii. It is equally clear that the man who accuses his bride of not being a virgin after he "goes into her" or "approaches" her is married to her and this marriage cannot be dissolved if he has brought a false accusation.

iv. BUT if his accusation is correct then the young woman is defined by the Word of God as a "harlot" and is sentenced to die immediately.

v. If a man takes a virgin forcibly he is responsible for her for life, he may never put her away or "divorce" her.

vi. If a man entices a virgin and lies with her, her father may refuse to permit her to marry the man when the father first hears about it, if the father does not refuse to permit her to marry then they are considered to be married. Refer to section 60, page 178 relating to the passage of Scripture in Judges 21 verses 20 to 23 where wives are taken for Benjamin in terms of this principle. If the father does not permit her to marry it would appear that Deuteronomy 22:13-21 prohibits her from ever remarrying.


The following interpretation can be derived from this:

i. Virginity is sacred and Holy, it is not negotiable in the sight of God.

ii. A woman who is not a virgin is only eligible to marry if she is a widow or divorced on scripturally acceptable grounds (refer Matthew 5:31-32, Matthew 19:3-10, Mark 10:2-12 where Jesus makes it quite clear that there are certain specific conditions under which sexual union with a scripturally divorced woman is not adultery, see also the discussion on divorce in section 21, 22, page 83.

iii. A woman who was a harlot or adulteress is only eligible to marry if she has come to salvation and / or she has come to true repentance of her sin and deliverance therefrom. She must be divorced in the sight of God from the man who took her virginity and any man to whom she may have been technically (legally) married in the sight of the world. Such a woman should only be married by a man who is absolutely certain that God has released her for marriage.


There are some side issues necessary to fully understand this scripture and therefore to avoid misinterpreting it in the current age:

i. The virgin referred to in this passage of scripture was typically approximately twelve and a half years old and was on the point of commencing menstruation or had only just commenced. This is confirmed in the Talmud and other sources. The Talmud, Steinsaltz Edition, Volume IX, Tractate Ketubot Part III, published by Random House New York, pages 1 to 13 repeatedly defines a virgin as being a girl between the age of twelve and twelve and a half years corresponding to the point at which a girl allegedly attains sexual maturity and is regarded as an adult woman. Refer to section 63, page 183 for an extract of the Talmud on this point.

Accordingly, the physical factors which can give rise to perforation of the hymen in older virgins would not have been experienced. Note that so-called "child brides" were still common in the Middle East until recently. I have met a woman of Lebanese descent whose parents' generation frequently married brides in the age group 12 to 15.

I mention this, not with a view to stimulating controversy about the acceptable age of a girl at marriage but to overcome any difficulty that modern readers may have with this scripture based on the tendency for modern, athletically active, young women to damage their hymens before marriage. It is important to understand that it is spiritual folly to marry a woman with a damaged hymen unless one is absolutely certain that God has declared her free to marry. Failing this the man will be committing adultery.

ii. It would appear that witnesses were present at the act of defloration otherwise there could not have been any "evidence" as the man and woman would not be permitted to give evidence scripturally. Certainly it would seem that the father must have been present in order to be able to testify with regard to the evidence of virginity in Deuteronomy 22:16! If he was not present surely any cloth with blood on it would suffice as "evidence"?

iii. To the best of my knowledge, the hymen, like the foreskin, serves no known biological purpose of material significance. It only serves as a warning to the bridegroom to the effect that "if this seal is broken, do not marry".

We must therefore ask the question, "Why did God create woman with a hymen?" And surely, the answer can only be "To warn the bridegroom of impending spiritual danger if it is damaged or absent!".


The critical conclusions that can be derived from this scripture are:

i. Since God created woman to lose her virginity only once, she was only intended to marry once and therefore to only marry one man, in other words, biblical marriage IS sexual intercourse with a virgin!

ii. Since it is equally clear that once a man has penetrated a virgin and taken her virginity, he is married to her, we must conclude that God permits a man to marry more than one wife since it is perfectly possible for a man to take the virginity of more than one woman.

iii. God ordained woman to be this way from creation NOT after the fall of Adam and Eve. There is no scripture to indicate that after the fall God re-engineered Eve and added the hymen as an after-thought!

iv. Therefore, whatever acceptable sexual states God foresaw for woman at creation, as measured by this unique "seal of virginity" must still surely prevail in our fallen state although God did introduce divorce for certain critical cases of spiritual or sexual fornication or treachery as discussed in section 21, 22, page 83.

Appendix D, page 233 contains many more examples of scriptures which support the fact that Yahweh permits a man to have more than one wife.


The above discussion on virginity is intended to highlight the importance of virginity in the sight of God. At the same time, current social practice presents us with a situation in which women typically marry at an age considerably older than twelve and a half years, use tampons and participate in activities which give rise to a greatly increase likelihood of the hymen being innocently perforated before marriage. This introduces some serious complexity in the life of any God-fearing man since it is apparent from the discussion on adultery in section 11, page 37 that adultery is a very serious sin which leads to the guilty parties having a part in the lake of fire and brimstone if not repented of. Consequently a man faced with the prospect of consumating a marriage with a woman with a perforated hymen would be well advised to earnestly seek the Lord for absolutely unambiguous confirmation that God will permit him to marry her and that he will not be committing adultery.

I am also advised that in older women where the hymen is intact it may become tough with the result that great pain is experienced in first intercourse but the hymen does not tear and no blood is shed. However, in such an instance there should be little or no doubt that the woman is a virgin.


I think it is generally accepted within the church that marriage is a covenant relationship, however, there are diverse explanations of the nature and form of this covenant and how it comes into existence. This section seeks to understand the true scriptural marriage covenant.


What is the actual sign of the marriage covenant? Hebrews 9:18-20 states:

18 Therefore not even the first covenant was dedicated without blood.

19 For when Moses had spoken every precept to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of calves and goats, with water, scarlet wool, and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people,

20 saying, "This is the blood of the covenant which God has commanded you." (NKJ)

Clearly a covenant cannot be dedicated without blood.


Referring to Genesis 15:4-21 we read concerning Abram:

4 And behold, the word of the LORD came to him, saying, "This one shall not be your heir, but one who will come from your own body shall be your heir."

5 Then He brought him outside and said, "Look now toward heaven, and count the stars if you are able to number them." And He said to him, "So shall your descendants be."

6 And he believed in the LORD, and He accounted it to him for righteousness.

7 Then He said to him, "I am the LORD, who brought you out of Ur of the Chaldeans, to give you this land to inherit it."

8 And he said, "Lord GOD, how shall I know that I will inherit it?"

9 So He said to him, "Bring Me a three-year-old heifer, a three-year-old female goat, a three-year-old ram, a turtledove, and a young pigeon."

10 Then he brought all these to Him and cut them in two, down the middle, and placed each piece opposite the other; but he did not cut the birds in two.

11 And when the vultures came down on the carcasses, Abram drove them away.

12 Now when the sun was going down, a deep sleep fell upon Abram; and behold, horror and great darkness fell upon him.

13 Then He said to Abram: "Know certainly that your descendants will be strangers in a land that is not theirs, and will serve them, and they will afflict them four hundred years.

14 "And also the nation whom they serve I will judge; afterward they shall come out with great possessions.

15 "Now as for you, you shall go to your fathers in peace; you shall be buried at a good old age.

16 "But in the fourth generation they shall return here, for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet complete."

17 And it came to pass, when the sun went down and it was dark, that behold, there appeared a smoking oven and a burning torch that passed between those pieces.

18 On the same day the LORD made a covenant with Abram, saying: "To your descendants I have given this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the River Euphrates--

19 "the Kenites, the Kenezzites, and the Kadmonites,

20 "the Hittites, the Perizzites, and the Rephaim,

21 "the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Girgashites, and the Jebusites." (NKJ)

This is the passage (verse 6) where Abram believed God and it was accounted to him for righteousness as referred to in Galatians 3:6:

just as Abraham "believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness." (NKJ)

and in Romans 4:9-12 we read:

9 Does this blessedness then come upon the circumcised only, or upon the uncircumcised also? For we say that faith was accounted to Abraham for righteousness.

10 How then was it accounted? While he was circumcised, or uncircumcised? Not while circumcised, but while uncircumcised.

11 And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had while still uncircumcised, that he might be the father of all those who believe, though they are uncircumcised, that righteousness might be imputed to them also,

12 and the father of circumcision to those who not only are of the circumcision, but who also walk in the steps of the faith which our father Abraham had while still uncircumcised. (NKJ)

In this passage there appears to be a clear correlation between the covenant under which Christians now walk and the covenant that God cut with Abram in Genesis 15:4-21. There is also a correlation with a subsequent covenant cut between God and Abraham by way of circumcision, as discussed in section 10 below.

However there is another principle contained in Genesis 15, specifically in verse 10:

Then he brought all these to Him and cut them in two, down the middle, and placed each piece opposite the other; . . . .

in verse 17 we read:

. . . . .a smoking oven and a burning torch that passed between those pieces.

The smoking oven and burning torch are widely regarded as being manifestations of the presence of God since verse 18 states that "On the same day the LORD made a covenant with Abram,". So it would appear that God passed between the halves of the animals in making the covenant.

Is there confirmation of this interpretation in scripture?

Jeremiah 34:18 states:

'And I will give the men who have transgressed My covenant, who have not performed the words of the covenant which they made before Me, when they cut the calf in two and passed between the parts of it-- (NKJ)

It appears clear in this case that the covenant made with God by the Princes of Judah and others referred to in the subsequent verses involved cutting a calf in two and passing between the parts of it. Essentially the same actions that we see in Genesis 15:10 to 18.

However, there is more to it. The Living Torah, a modern Jewish translation by Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan, published by Maznaim Publishing Corporation, New York and Jerusalem, translates Genesis 15:10:

[Abram] brought all these for Him. He split them in half, and placed one half opposite the other.

Here we see the word translated "cut" in the New King James Version, translated split.

The footnote to Genesis 15:10 in the Living Torah states:

"split them . . . This was the way of making a covenant (Rashi). Indeed, the words b'rith (covenant) and bathar (split) appear to be closely related (.....) It symbolized that just as the two halves of the animal were really one, so were the two people making the covenant. Moreover, just as one side cannot live without the other, so the two cannot live without each other (.....). It was also seen as a malediction; anyone violating the oath would be torn asunder like the animals (.....)."

In this one note we begin to see the deeper meaning embodied in Deuteronomy 22:13-30, cited in section 8, page 19, revealed:

i. The covenant is made by splitting or cutting some living thing and shedding blood.

ii. People who make a blood covenant become one and cannot live without one another.

iii. A person who breaks covenant is to be put to death.

This is confirmed by a variety of independent sources who have studied the blood covenant in scripture and also in pagan practice. Refer teachings by Kenneth Copeland on "Covenant Made by Blood : Hesed - Agape", ISBN 0-88114-790-7, published by Kenneth Copeland Ministries.

The Oxford English Dictionary defines:

"split ... Break forcibly, be broken into parts esp. longitudinally or with the grain or plane of cleavage; ..."

Consider also the physical reality of a "meat cleaver" as something that cleaves or cuts into the meat.


Bringing this together Genesis 2:21-25 in the King James Translation states:

21 And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof;

22 And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man.

23 And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man.

24 Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh.

25 And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed. (KJV)

Thus we see the man cleaving or splitting his wife, forcibly breaking apart her hymen on the plane of cleavage, shedding blood. He then proceeds to "walk" or "pass between" the two halves completing the covenant act.

The imagery is vivid and powerful. If we put aside our prudery for a moment and wonder at the physical appearance of the external female sexual organ, we should be even further amazed at the imagery which our God has encapsulated in what superficially is an organ whose structure and design makes no earthly sense. It is not intended to, it faithfully recreates the two halves of the covenant animal, even to the hair covering the animal! Surely we must conclude that God knew the end from the beginning and designed woman to be symbolic of His covenant with Man.

Taking it further, He symbolically recreates the cutting of the covenant every time a wife who truly loves her husband and gives herself totally to him experiences sexual orgasm coupled with a flood of blood into the labia minora!

How can we conclude other than that the sexual act is the most sublimely holy representation of the act of covenant? How can we be other than appalled at how this symbolism has been lost and distorted?

The sexual act is an act of such enormous spiritual significance - is it any wonder that Satan has expended the energy that he has to deceive us for so long?!

How can we for a moment suggest that there is another purpose for virginity?


Clearly every time a covenant minded man sees his wife's sexual organ he is instinctively reminded of his covenant with her. Clearly it is an abomination for any other man to have sight of the outward symbol of that covenant, let alone to penetrate it, thus breaking the covenant.

Should we not ask ourselves whether it is possible that the heart of man seeks for this covenant purity with woman and, because of the wrong teaching of this age, turns to pornography and lust as the only substitute that offers any recognition of a deep desire for covenant?

Surely the symbolic portrayal of the female sexual organ, aroused and provocatively displayed in the form of the blood red "heart" used on valentine's day cards, to say "I love you" and as a seemingly innocuous symbol of love throughout our society represents one of the most effective devices that Satan has used to distract us totally from the true meaning of the love that God intended to exist between man and woman? Do you realise that every time you see a red heart (), Satan is tricking you subliminally to contemplate woman's most private AND most Holy part! In a very real sense the door to her heart, refer to the discussion on the one flesh bond in section 43, page 127.

Remember that 1 Corinthians 12:23-24 states:

23 And those members of the body which we think to be less honorable, on these we bestow greater honor; and our unpresentable parts have greater modesty,

24 but our presentable parts have no need. But God composed the body, having given greater honor to that part which lacks it, (NKJ)



Ephesians 5:22-33 in the King James Version states:

22 Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as unto the Lord.

23 For the husband is the head of the wife, even as Christ is the head of the church: and he is the saviour of the body.

24 Therefore as the church is subject unto Christ, so let the wives be to their own husbands in every thing.

25 Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church, and gave himself for it;

26 That he might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water by the word,

27 That he might present it to himself a glorious church, not having spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish.

28 So ought men to love their wives as their own bodies. He that loveth his wife loveth himself.

29 For no man ever yet hated his own flesh; but nourisheth and cherisheth it, even as the Lord the church:

30 For we are members of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones.

31 For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and shall be joined unto his wife, and they two shall be one flesh.

32 This is a great mystery: but I speak concerning Christ and the church.

33 Nevertheless let every one of you in particular so love his wife even as himself; and the wife see that she reverence her husband. (KJV)

Surely here we see one of the most perfect examples of God's infinite attention to detail, His wonder and His majesty. We see the blood covenant between Christ and His bride the church, neatly tied in to the blood covenant between a man and his wife both demonstrated symbolically by the covenant cut by walking between the halves of the animal that has been "cleaved".

If I return for a moment to the three points made earlier:

i. The covenant is made by splitting or cutting some living thing and shedding blood:

1) Between man and man - an animal.

2) Between man and woman - the hymen of the woman.

3) Between man and God - the precious Blood of our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ of Nazareth, shed on the cross at Calvary by the crown of thorns, the lashes, the nails and the spear all of which cleaved into His flesh.

ii. People who make a blood covenant become one and cannot live without one another:

1) Between man and man - spiritual curses come into effect, something which our generation is woefully ignorant of, but that is a subject for another discourse.

2) Between man and woman - the one flesh bond, a powerful spiritual bond which literally unites and ties them together "until death do us part", refer section 43, page 127.

3) Between man and God - the born again reality, a powerful spiritual force in which the Spirit of Jesus comes to live within the Temple of the Believer who believes in their heart and confesses with their mouth that Jesus Christ is Lord.

iii. A person who breaks covenant is to be put to death:

1) Between man and man, long since lost. Numbers 30:2 states:

2 "If a man vows a vow to the LORD, or swears an oath to bind himself by some agreement, he shall not break his word; he shall do according to all that proceeds out of his mouth. (NKJ)

Today a man's word is seldom his bond. Yet there are still potentially eternal consequences since Revelation 21:8 is quite clear that "ALL liars" will have their part in the lake of fire and brimstone.

2) Between man and woman, long since lost in the natural but as I understand it spiritual death still results from unrepented adultery. Today adultery hardly seems to be regarded as serious sin, even in the church. Many preach that it is easily "repented" of. Refer section 11, page 37. In reality, the covenant bond can only be broken by the death of one spouse unless God, in His mercy and in response to humble petition in the name of Jesus, cuts the tie. But He will only do this as a consequence of persistent treachery on the part of one spouse, refer section 21, 22, page 83.

But the offender who does not repent in this life will have their part in the lake of fire and brimstone!

3) Between man and God the penalty REMAINS ETERNAL SEPARATION FROM GOD - REAL DEATH. Nothing has changed even though modern man and the church make light of this. People are breaking covenant with God all the time and turning their backs on Him to go to Hell, they just do not realize it. The deception that it is not serious for people to break their word and for people to commit adultery has given rise to a far worse deception, that it is acceptable to betray and disobey God!!

I sincerely hope that by now you will have begun to realize just how deep and how serious the subject of this book is. Millions, if not billions of souls are in Hell and many others are on their way as a consequence of man's heresies in this area!


In another dimension, Ephesians 5:31-32 which states that a man "shall be joined unto his wife, and they two shall be one flesh. This is a great mystery: but I speak concerning Christ and the church" answers another question. That of why, if marriage is so important, does God seemingly give so little direct guidance in the Bible on marriage? The answer must surely be contained in the above verses coupled to 2 Corinthians 11:2-3 which states:

2 For I am jealous for you with godly jealousy. For I have betrothed you to one husband, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to Christ.

3 But I fear, lest somehow, as the serpent deceived Eve by his craftiness, so your minds may be corrupted from the simplicity that is in Christ (NKJ)

There are other scriptures which relate the holy virgin, prepared for the coming of her husband, to the church of the Lord Jesus Christ including Ephesians 5:27 above. This thought is well developed in the article "Wow! So that's how Jesus loves me!, reproduced in Appendix Q, page 280. Note that at the same time the use of the metaphor of the "bride of Christ" is an allegory, metaphor or parable, in a sense, we become married to Jesus the instant that we pray the prayer of salvation and His Spirit comes to dwell within us, thus we are at the same time both married and betrothed to Jesus in a way that is perhaps difficult for many to grasp. This is discussed further in section ****, page ****.

This same thought is carried through into 2 Peter 3:14:

14 Therefore, beloved, looking forward to these things, be diligent to be found by Him in peace, without spot and blameless; (NKJ)

Can there be any doubt that the entire Bible, from Genesis to Revelation, traces the marriage of Jesus Christ to His bride, culminating with the wedding feast described in Revelation 19:9?

9 Then he said to me, "Write: 'Blessed are those who are called to the marriage supper of the Lamb!'" And he said to me, "These are the true sayings of God." (NKJ)


Surely, in seeking to understand these scriptures, we must recognize that the parable of the ten virgins in Matthew 25:1-13 refers to a man who was betrothed to marry ten virgins at the same wedding feast!

1 "Then the kingdom of heaven shall be likened to ten virgins who took their lamps and went out to meet the bridegroom.

2 "Now five of them were wise, and five were foolish.

3 "Those who were foolish took their lamps and took no oil with them,

4 "but the wise took oil in their vessels with their lamps.

5 "But while the bridegroom was delayed, they all slumbered and slept.

6 "And at midnight a cry was heard: 'Behold, the bridegroom is coming; go out to meet him!'

7 "Then all those virgins arose and trimmed their lamps.

8 "And the foolish said to the wise, 'Give us some of your oil, for our lamps are going out.'

9 "But the wise answered, saying, 'No, lest there should not be enough for us and you; but go rather to those who sell, and buy for yourselves.'

10 "And while they went to buy, the bridegroom came, and those who were ready went in with him to the wedding; and the door was shut.

11 "Afterward the other virgins came also, saying, 'Lord, Lord, open to us!'

12 "But he answered and said, 'Assuredly, I say to you, I do not know you.'

13 "Watch therefore, for you know neither the day nor the hour in which the Son of Man is coming. (NKJ)

If Jesus, Himself, saw fit to refer to such an example in public, surely we must conclude that it was not unheard of for a man in Jesus' day to be married to more than one woman? In this case we must surely accept that it is heresy to suggest that a man can only have one wife!?

This parable must be understood in terms of a broader context in terms of which I have heard it reported that Jewish tradition involved a bridegroom, having arranged the betrothal, going "to prepare a place" for his bride by building on to his father's dwelling. The bride in her turn would prepare her garments to be without spot or blemish and would leave a lamp burning in the window at all times to let her bridegroom know that she was waiting for him. With this additional knowledge, the scripture above takes on a whole new dimension and, as you meditate on this, you will see how so much more of the scriptures speak to us of the marriage between man and woman. More details are contained in appendix Q, page 280.

This tradition further comes to vibrant life through John 14:1-3:

1 "Let not your heart be troubled; you believe in God, believe also in Me.

2 "In My Father's house are many mansions; if it were not so, I would have told you. I go to prepare a place for you.

3 "And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and receive you to Myself; that where I am, there you may be also. (NKJ)

Surely it is clear that Jesus is referring to the marriage tradition of the time. He is saying that there are many mansions and He is going to prepare a place for His bride. If there are many mansions or rooms then there must be many brides!


A problem some may have with the ten virgins of Matthew 25:1-13 is the prospect of a man marrying more than one woman in the same wedding celebration. More specifically, a man consumating marriage with five or ten women in the same night! That may rattle our paradigms but can there be any doubt that this is what Jesus is referring to? There is certainly no scripture which expressly prevents a man from marrying more than one woman at the same celebration. There is at least one account in scripture which appears to suggest that a man could have married two wives at the same time.

2 Chronicles 24:2-3 states:

2 Joash did what was right in the sight of the LORD all the days of Jehoiada the priest.

3 And Jehoiada took two wives for him, and he had sons and daughters. (NKJ)


As we come to terms with the understanding of the correlation between marriage and the New Birth in Christ, developed above, we can begin to see the richness of the instruction that God gives us with regard to marriage throughout the Bible. Thus, when Jesus says that He will "never leave us or forsake" us in Hebrews 13:5, we must accept that this applies just as much between a husband and wife.

When God defines His "agape", covenant keeping love in 1 Corinthians 13:1-10:

1 Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, but have not love, I have become sounding brass or a clanging cymbal.

2 And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries and all knowledge, and though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, but have not love, I am nothing.

3 And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and though I give my body to be burned, but have not love, it profits me nothing.

4 Love suffers long and is kind; love does not envy; love does not parade itself, is not puffed up;

5 does not behave rudely, does not seek its own, is not provoked, thinks no evil;

6 does not rejoice in iniquity, but rejoices in the truth;

7 bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things.

8 Love never fails. But whether there are prophecies, they will fail; whether there are tongues, they will cease; whether there is knowledge, it will vanish away.

9 For we know in part and we prophesy in part.

10 But when that which is perfect has come, then that which is in part will be done away. (NKJ)

Surely we must recognize that this is the love that God refers to in Ephesians 5:22-33, cited above. A fuller definition is offered in Appendix B page 228, where the full text of Vine's Expository Dictionary with regard to Love is quoted. It seems notable to me that there is not a single reference to relations between husband and wife in this entire passage - do we truly believe that the Bible offers no material commentary on the love between husband and wife? Surely not! Surely we must accept that love between husband and wife is an earthly type of the love between Christ and His bride of which I am sure both you and I hope to be members? Therefore, we must surely accept that the entire Bible contains guidance on marriage?

Above all, surely we must accept that:

Christian love, whether exercised toward the brethren, or toward men generally, is not an impulse from the feelings, it does not always run with the natural inclinations, nor does it spend itself only upon those for whom some affinity is discovered. Love seeks the welfare of all, <Rom. 15:2>, and works no ill to any, <13:8-10>; love seeks opportunity to do good to `all men, (from Vine's Expository Dictionary of Biblical Words, Copyright (C) 1985, Thomas Nelson Publishers)


"Love can be known only from the actions it prompts. God's love is seen in the gift of His Son, <1 John 4:9,10>. But obviously this is not the love of complacency, or affection, that is, it was not drawn out by any excellency in its objects, <Rom. 5:8>. It was an exercise of the divine will in deliberate choice, made without assignable cause save that which lies in the nature of God Himself, Cf. <Deut. 7:7,8>. (Vines op. cit.) ........

"Christian love has God for its primary object, and expresses itself first of all in implicit obedience to His commandments, <John 14:15, 21,23; 15:10; 1 John 2:5; 5:3; 2 John 6>. Selfwill, that is, self-pleasing, is the negation of love to God.

Surely we must conclude that God is quite specific in what He considers to be love in the context of husband and wife : it is not an impulse, it is a choice, it seeks the welfare of the spouse according to the Word and the Will of God, not it's own welfare nor the welfare of the spouse as determined by their opinion of what is best for them, it is determined by the principles set out in 1 Corinthians 13:4-8:


(1) suffers long

(2) is kind

(3) does not envy

(4) does not parade itself

(5) is not puffed up

(6) does not behave rudely

(7) does not seek its own

(8) is not provoked

(9) thinks no evil

(10) does not rejoice in iniquity

(11) rejoices in the truth

(12) bears all things

(13) believes all things

(14) hopes all things

(15) endures all things

Love never fails!

Love is a series of choices with regard to an approach to the relationship which is totally devoid of any consideration of SELF. As the Agape Love of God is applied in the marriage relationship as a choice of life style, romantic love follows NOT the reverse!

Surely, if this were the love practised between husband and wife, putting away ("divorce") in the church would be dramatically reduced! However, it would seem that, in following the false doctrine of monogamy and pursuing the Jezebel inspired belief that a woman owns her husband, God's pattern for marriage and the relationship between man and wife has been almost totally lost!


Surely we cannot be ready as a spotless bride prepared for our bridegroom until we have learned to live in God's form of marriage? Surely this requires that men learn to care for more than one woman and women learn to share their husband with another wife? Surely the church cannot learn to live together in unity until men and women in the body of Christ have learned to live together in harmony? Is there not a clear parallel between the seven churches of Revelation and the seven women in Isaiah 4:1?

Revelation 1:4-8 states:

4 John, to the seven churches which are in Asia: Grace to you and peace from Him who is and who was and who is to come, and from the seven Spirits who are before His throne,

5 and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn from the dead, and the ruler over the kings of the earth. To Him who loved us and washed us from our sins in His own blood,

6 and has made us kings and priests to His God and Father, to Him be glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen.

7 Behold, He is coming with clouds, and every eye will see Him, even they who pierced Him. And all the tribes of the earth will mourn because of Him. Even so, Amen.

8 "I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End," says the Lord, "who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty." (NKJ)

Surely this speaks about the end of the age when Jesus will return for His bride and she will be caught up to join Him in the air? Surely the church is the bride and this passage speaks of seven churches, each with distinct attributes?

Isaiah 4:1-6 states:

1 And in that day seven women shall take hold of one man, saying, "We will eat our own food and wear our own apparel; only let us be called by your name, to take away our reproach."

2 In that day the Branch of the LORD shall be beautiful and glorious; and the fruit of the earth shall be excellent and appealing for those of Israel who have escaped.

3 And it shall come to pass that he who is left in Zion and remains in Jerusalem will be called holy-- everyone who is recorded among the living in Jerusalem.

4 When the Lord has washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and purged the blood of Jerusalem from her midst, by the spirit of judgment and by the spirit of burning,

5 then the LORD will create above every dwelling place of Mount Zion, and above her assemblies, a cloud and smoke by day and the shining of a flaming fire by night. For over all the glory there will be a covering.

6 And there will be a tabernacle for shade in the daytime from the heat, for a place of refuge, and for a shelter from storm and rain. (NKJ)

Surely this speaks of the time that is now fast approaching and has perhaps already dawned? And the situation described in Isaiah 3:16-26:

16 Moreover the LORD says: "Because the daughters of Zion are haughty, and walk with outstretched necks and wanton eyes, walking and mincing as they go, making a jingling with their feet,

17 Therefore the Lord will strike with a scab the crown of the head of the daughters of Zion, and the LORD will uncover their secret parts."

18 In that day the Lord will take away the finery: the jingling anklets, the scarves, and the crescents;

19 The pendants, the bracelets, and the veils;

20 The headdresses, the leg ornaments, and the headbands; the perfume boxes, the charms,

21 and the rings; the nose jewels,

22 the festal apparel, and the mantles; the outer garments, the purses,

23 and the mirrors; the fine linen, the turbans, and the robes.

24 And so it shall be: instead of a sweet smell there will be a stench; instead of a sash, a rope; instead of well-set hair, baldness; instead of a rich robe, a girding of sackcloth; and branding instead of beauty.

25 Your men shall fall by the sword, and your mighty in the war.

26 Her gates shall lament and mourn, and she being desolate shall sit on the ground. (NKJ)

Speaks of the age which is drawing to a close, where the attire of women in the church can surely not be regarded as modest and the conduct of many is as described here?

It is widely acknowledged that there are currently far more women than men in the church. I know of congregations where a simple headcount in any meeting will show up to ten times more women than men. I suggest that you may be challenged to find a congregation anywhere where there are not at least twice as many women as men. Surely then, we are in the age that Isaiah 4:1 speaks of?

Consider also that 7 is the number of completion and perfection. This is discussed in more detail in section 55, page 157.

Appendix D, page 233 contains many more examples of scriptures which support the fact that Yahweh permits a man to have more than one wife.


In contrast to the verses from Deuteronomy 22:13-30 cited in section 8, page 19 and subsequent sections on virginity and the sacredness and scriptural importance of the hymen, consider what Genesis 17:9-14 says about the foreskin of man:

9 And God said to Abraham: "As for you, you shall keep My covenant, you and your descendants after you throughout their generations.

10 "This is My covenant which you shall keep, between Me and you and your descendants after you: Every male child among you shall be circumcised;

11 "and you shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskins, and it shall be a sign of the covenant between Me and you.

12 "He who is eight days old among you shall be circumcised, every male child in your generations, he who is born in your house or bought with money from any foreigner who is not your descendant.

13 "He who is born in your house and he who is bought with your money must be circumcised, and My covenant shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covenant.

14 "And the uncircumcised male child, who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that person shall be cut off from his people; he has broken My covenant." (NKJ)

This is just the first of numerous scriptures on the subject of circumcision and the removal of the foreskin, many of which are cited in Appendix C, page 230.


In Genesis 17:9-14 cited above, we see certain parallels with the previous passage on virginity. In particular:

i. Blood is shed by the cutting of flesh - the foreskin in this case versus the hymen in the previous.

ii. The flesh that is cut off in this case again appears to serve no useful anatomical or biological purpose. It is apparently redundant and can therefore be removed without any long term harm. In fact, males who are not circumcised have, particularly in earlier generations, been prone to infection under the foreskin. It is, to a point a liability and a health hazard if not removed.

iii. If the man is not circumcised he is cut off from his people. David referred to Goliath as an "uncircumcised Philistine" (1 Samuel 17:26 and 36) signifying that Goliath did not have a covenant with God and was therefore not entitled to His protection and His promises while David did.


The only interpretation that can be placed on the foregoing conclusions is that the foreskin was created for a specific purpose, to signify covenant with God.


i. It would seem to be intentional on the part of God that He chose to place the sign of His covenant on an organ which man was obliged to take notice of on a daily basis and could therefore be constantly reminded of his covenant with God.

ii. The presence or absence of a foreskin has no relevance in terms of section 8 with regard to marriage and virginity. God did not provide any safety mechanism comparable to the hymen to warn a bride that a man was not a "virgin".

iii. Therefore, if God ever intended a man to be restricted to one wife he was grossly unjust in providing a fail safe mechanism to protect men against adultery and providing no such mechanism to protect women!


These two passages regarding virginity and the foreskin bring us directly to what you may regard as a rather shocking conclusion:

i. There is nothing in scripture which prevents a man from consummating marriage with more than one woman. Therefore, God created man and woman from the outset for a man to be married to several women at the same time.

ii. Therefore, the current doctrine of the church regarding a man only having one wife is not correct.


While I would like to believe that the scriptures presented so far represent definitive proof of God's intention that man should have more than one wife, my experience to date indicates that there are many who will still have doubts. To this end, let us consider further scriptures.

Random Selection of Articles Published on the End Time Issue Ministries Mailing List Since the Day of Atonement 2009

0205 Important directional and defensive prayers

Many who believe battle in their lives because they do not know what to pray.

This document lists a number of prayers that I have found particularly valuable and functional.

2012.08.09 "Chick Flicks" ARE pornography TOO

Many believers take pride in not using pornography but are unaware that the word means the portrayal of fornication which does NOT necessarily refer to nudity.

Thus Chick Flicks, Soap Operas, Live Theatre and many other forms of entertainment represent fornication in the sense of characters making it clear that there is a sexual relationship that is contrary to the commandments of Yah.

Discretion is required with regard to what one watches and my inclination is to avoid it all.

2013.10.14 The Truth About Halloween

Most believers are extremely ignorant about Halloween and its evils

Father has impressed on me to locate further information of relevance

The article below provides a historical understanding of this evil day

2011.04.15 How to observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread

How should you observe the feast of unleavened bread?

0999.2012.01.04 Yah speaks on South Africa

A warning of harsh judgment for South Africa and a call to repentance

2011.10.03 Clarification -- there IS good in the bible

Some people are troubled by the extent to which I minimize the importance of the bible

2011.02.09 Is Allah God? and Yah?

There is great contention and misunderstanding with regard to who Allah is relative to Yah {or God}

WHY Believe in the Almighty Creator and seek relationship with Him

IF YOU do NOT believe that the Almighty Creator exists and therefore do NOT have a personal relationship with Him you face a terrible fate when you COULD be blessed for eternity

The Creator has said regarding YOU "why would I want someone to spend eternity with me when they do NOT believe I exist?

Please go immediately to the WHY Believe page and give careful consideration to what is presented there

IF you have a DEEP inner conviction of the reality of the Creator, in other words you claim to be a "believer", but you do NOT have a deep personal relationship with Him such that He speaks to you clearly and regularly and you seek His guidance in every area of your life then He has said of you “why would I want someone to be close to me in Heaven, which inherently means I will give them great authority, if they do NOT have a deep personal relationship with me and have NOT proven to me that they can be trusted?”

Please go immediately to the Relationship with Yah page


Dr James Robertson PrEng, emissary and spokesman of Yah, founder of End Time Issue Ministries

Dr James A Robertson is called as an emissary {Apostle} and spokesman {prophet} of Yah, the Almighty Creator and has been set-apart for a number of years writing and publishing what he believes that the Almighty has said to him.

Read more >

Contact James at


An Engineering approach to the matters of the Almighty Creator of the Heavens and the Earth whose true name is Yah the Eternally Self-Existing

By "engineering approach" is meant rigorous, precise, verified, tested, proven, questioning, critical, investigative, scientific, analytical, evolving, improving practical, no nonsense, learn from mistakes, intolerant of sloppiness, realistic, REAL



This site is growing -- Re Blank Pages

As the site grows we from time to time add blocks of new pages which may NOT contain content for a while -- please accept my apologies for the inconvenience, you may find the information you require elsewhere on the site, alternatively email me for the information you are seeking
Note that words in curly brackets {} are words that although they are in common use are inaccurate in terms of the matters of the Almighty and should therefore be avoided

The Almighty Creator, Yah the Eternally Self-Existing, says: "It is time to choose -- will you be my friend, or my foe? -- there is NO middle ground!"

Yah says further:

"Ultimately THE AIM of this entire experiment is to find those who will make the sacrifices necessary to become My FRIENDS -- NOTHING is more important"
"A friend is one who is concerned about the well-being of the one they call friend and desires to treat that person as they would be treated -- HOW do you choose to treat Me?"
"True friendship is about what you can GIVE -- NOT what you can GET! -- what are YOU prepared to give Me (Yah)?"
"A true friend seeks to know ALL truth about the one whom they call friend AND to help others to know that truth -- Do YOU know the truth about me? Do YOU care?"
"In this age I (Yah) am MASSIVELY CONSTRAINED by the 'Rules of Engagement' in terms of what I can say and do EXCEPT through those true friends and true servants who will do the necessary work to KNOW my will AND proclaim it AND action it"
"There is NO greater love than that a man should lay down his life for his friend! -- Will YOU lay down your life for Me?"
"Technically a martyr is one who lays down their life for Me, NOT necessarily in physical death but also by sacrificing their comfort and well being in favour of doing MY will -- will you do ALL that it takes to serve Me and love Me as your friend, NO MATTER what it costs you? -- Will you be a martyr for Me by your way of living?"
"My true friends take time to spend quality time with Me daily and communicate with Me and consult Me constantly"
"Why Believe?
"Because if you do NOT you WILL find that when you die you are forced to serve and worship Satan for ever or at least until the day the winner of the 'The Contest' is adjudicated
"Realize that serving Satan after you die could be a really HORRIBLE experience, particularly IF you regard yourself as a GOOD person!"
"Imagine what it will be like as an ancestor spirit (demon) knowing the truth about the lies you believed and watching your loved ones making the same mistakes and believing the same lies that you believed and being unable to do anything about it!"
"Imagine what it will be like when you discover that you are irrevocably locked into the same dispensation that is behind the most barbaric and savage cultures on earth"
"IF you are a 'GOOD' person: when you die you may find yourself secretly hoping that Satan WILL lose 'The Contest' so that you can be cast into the Lake of Fire and utterly consumed in a moment of torment and terror, rather than being a participant in the progressive degradation of the human race into utter depravity, barbarism and perversion! -- and yet you will be POWERLESS to do anything about it!"
"The consequences of dying without a PROFOUND realization of my (Yah's) existence AND a DEEP life changing decision to serve Me is too ghastly to contemplate IF you take the trouble to REALLY understand the truth about the world you live in!"
"Imagine what it will be like to be a demon (ancestor spirit) riding on your favourite grandchild and watching them participate in the same empty rituals and mouthing the same meaningless platitudes that you practised during your life and being UNABLE to warn them of the terrible destiny that they are locking themselves into!"
"A person who reaches the end of their life as my TRUE FRIEND, one who has progressed from 'Wise Steward', to 'Good and Faithful Servant', to 'Overcomer' and ultimately to 'Friend' will receive rewards and authority of unimaginable splendour including a high throne, status and apparel that is far beyond anything that even the most powerful rulers on earth have ever dreamed of, let alone experienced -- contrast this with the other extreme -- an angry and depraved ancestor spirit (demon) desperately seeking favour in a kingdom where favour is a lesser level of torment and the right to exercise greater control and depravity over those less inclined to serve Satan and his Masterminds  wholeheartedly"
"Do YOU REALLY want to be part of a kingdom where the tortured murder of infants is regarded as one of the highest privileges of rank?"
"The evidence is ALL around you IF you have eyes to see -- the choice is CLEAR -- a Kingdom of beauty, love (chesed) and benign power or a kingdom of atrocities and perversion, a kingdom that regards torture and tormented and protracted death of human sacrifices followed by cannibalism, preferably while the victim still lives, as the HIGHEST form of worship?"
"It is TIME for those who still have some smattering of knowledge of me and my ways to STOP playing games with Satan and start taking back this earth while there is STILL TIME -- it is time for believers to STOP marrying unbelievers and allowing their children to marry unbelievers,, it is TIME to STOP marrying those from Satan worshipping cultures, and to STOP welcoming them into your homes, your cities and your lands -- it is time to STOP acceding to Satanic demands that you cast ME (The Almighty) out of your schools, your halls of Government and your workplaces -- it is TIME to publicly open the day with worship and prayer to me, whether in your places of education, your places of Government or your places of work -- it is TIME to cast out those who will NOT comply instead of being cast out and secretively serving me behind locked doors and, IF you CANNOT set apart that place of learning, or government or work then EXIT PUBLICLY and DECLARE your reasons and gather together with those who WILL agree with you in these matters for it is so that in the spirit one TRUE believer FREE OF SIN can put 1,000 to flight and two can put 10,000 to flight and the power of TRUE BELIEVERS who choose to deal with ALL their sin and live in ALL truth is such that massive transformation IS possible -- note the impact of Noah, Abraham, Moshe {Moses}, Yahooshua {Jesus}, Mohammed and Luther -- YOU TOO can bring about RADICAL reformation and renaissance IF you will lay down your life and seek DEEP and ENDURING FRIENDSHIP with Me!"
"IF you believe, it is TIME to assess exactly WHAT you believe about me and then ACT accordingly!"
"IF you do NOT believe, it is time to assess EXACTLY what you DO believe and then act accordingly!"
"There is NO place for fence sitters -- YOU are either FOR me or by default you are AGAINST ME!"
"Know this -- IF you choose to be a TRUE friend, which means you deal with ALL sin and ALL error and do ALL that is required to ensure that your house is FULLY united behind you the forces of darkness CANNOT TOUCH YOU -- BUT, IF you play games and continue to dabble in your favourite sins and errors in your divided house the forces of darkness will TEAR you limb from limb and UTTERLY destroy you -- there has NEVER been a time in all the history of man on earth where life above sin and total unity of your house has been more important!"
"IF you choose to serve ME (Yah), understand that you are choosing a VERY strait and VERY narrow path leading to a VERY small door -- gird your loins and FOLLOW the example of the mighty set-apart ones of previous generations!"

Footnote: ALL the above references to "friend" relate to people like you and me seeking to become true friends of Yah, the Almighty Creator

About names, words, etc

The majority of visitors to this site will encounter names and words they are NOT familiar with

It is a harsh reality that the true Name of the Almighty Creator of the Heavens and the Earth whose true Name is "Yah the eternally self-existing" has been concealed as have all the important names, laws, commandments, principles and concepts

What is taught by the "Christian" church is almost entirely incorrect as is the case with EVERY religion

This website seeks to present these truths for your prayerful consideration and adoption -- see the prayers elsewhere in this side bar for more information on what to pray

Key names and words that are used throughout this site and which are fundamentally important are:

The true Name of the Almighty Creator is "Yah the eternally self-existing", frequently translated as "Yahweh", more accurately "Yahooeh"

The name of the man commonly known as "Jesus" is "Yahooshua" meaning "Yah is salvation"

The commonly used names of "God", "The LORD", "Christ", "Jesus" are ALL of pagan, that is Satanic origin and the Almighty has only responded to these names as an act of Grace, this Grace has now been withdrawn



Business Interests -- James A Robertson and Associates -- The Business Systems Doctor

In addition to this ministry I operate a management consulting business specializing in the strategic application of computer based business information systems - a business in which Father has taught me many leading edge concepts, principles and methods


My logo is based on Professor Malcolm McDonald's strategy -- tactics matrix -- strategy, doing the right things horizontally and tactics, doing things right on the vertical axis -- if your organization does the right things well, it will thrive -- top right quadrant -- this is a fundamental principles when it comes to the matters of the Almighty as well

In my consulting work I seek to enable my clients to do the right things well

I regard Father as my partner, Chairman, counselor and I seek to conduct business in a way that is pleasing to Him, within the context of prayer that He will judge me severely and correct me harshly that I may serve Him more perfectly


I truly believe that Father has given me extremely high value knowledge and experience which will enable your organization, be it commercial, governmental or non-governmental to be more effective and efficient in its operations and, IF profit is your measuring stick, more profitable



I am based in London, United Kingdom and can be contacted for business purposes on

About the articles on this site

Most articles on this site are classified with a reference number comprising the year, the month and a sequence number within the month, thus 2013.12.03 is the third article published in December 2013

Most detailed webpages are organized with the most recent articles at the top and the Article List displays with the most recent articles at the top.  Searches on the articles list in the same way

Because I am constantly learning, newer articles will almost certainly be an elaboration or refinement of earlier articles and in some cases may significantly revise what I said in earlier articles, in most cases the later article is likely to be more accurate than earlier articles

In ALL cases Father Yah forbids me to go back and edit or correct articles, He wants YOU to have a close personal relationship with Him and therefore to turn to Him for clarification where things that I write contradict or appear to contradict one another

The articles from 2009 onwards are generally much more reliable than those earlier but there are important articles from the earlier days as well, in particular, the articles written in 2000 onwards were written during a period when my understanding was being radically changed on a very intense basis and when I was also getting closer to the Almighty at a very rapid rate

Accordingly the early articles should be given appropriate prayer, particularly if the later articles contradict or appear to contradict what is written in the early articles

That said Father Yah has said that there is much of value in the earlier articles and that they should, accordingly, remain on the site

Third Party Articles

This site includes some articles from third parties

In such cases Father Yah forbids me to censor, edit or correct such articles but requires me to present them in their entirety with little or no comment, as with the previous point He requires YOU to research and pray and reach your own conclusion regarding what is truth

Inclusion of third party articles does NOT indicate any form of endorsement of the person who wrote the article other than that it is my understanding that the article contains information of importance.  Such inclusion also does NOT imply any endorsement of this ministry by the person whose work is cited

It is up to each one of us to discern the truth for ourselves See the article on Seek Truth NOT Error for more information

Content you do NOT agree with

It is probable that you will find material on this site that you do NOT agree with, there is much that is highly controversial, click HERE for an article that proposes a way of responding to such differences

See also article -- Getting close to Yah -- Appropriate prayer and fasting are VITAL -- the answer to doctrinal differences


Important prayers to pray IF you believe that the Almighty Creator exists

IF you believe that the Almighty Creator exists then take note that He has said of YOU why would I want someone to be close to me in Heaven, which inherently means I will give them great authority, if they do NOT have a deep personal relationship with me and have NOT proven to me that they can be trusted?

IF you believe that the Almighty Creator DOES exist the following are amongst the most important prayers you can pray

Note that the true name of the Almighty Creator is "Yah the eternally self-existing" NOT "The LORD" or "God"

Father Yah, I ask you to help me to overcome to the end that I may be found to  be a "good and faithful servant" on the Day of Judgment

Father Yah I ask you to show me the level of my present deception and how to correct it

Father Yah I ask you to help me to draw MUCH closer to you and to know your will and to do it

Father Yah I ask you to fill me with your Spirit and lead me into ALL truth by your Spirit

Father Yah I give you my life to do with as YOU see fit

Father Yah I ask you to bring the people that YOU want into my life and to take the people that you do NOT want in my life out

Father Yah I ask you to open the doors in my life that YOU want open and to close the doors in my life that YOU want closed

Father Yah I ask you to judge me severely and correct me harshly that I may serve you more perfectly

There are many other prayers that you can pray but these are amongst the most important

See also the page on developing a close relationship with the Almighty at


Consolidated Volumes of Articles

We are in the process of assembling the articles on this site into annual volumes based on the lunar based cycles prescribed by the Almighty, the following volumes are currently available in Adobe pdf format

The full list of articles is available on the Articles page and also on the listing in this side bar

The documents are formatted for double sided printing

Vol 10 year 6006 from Creation: 29 Mar 2009 to 18 Mar 2010
Vol11 year 6007 from Creation: 18 Mar 2010 to 6 Apr 2011
 The documents are also available in Microsoft Word docx format on the detailed article listing in the side bar
Download the entire website in a format that you can run standalone on your computer with NO Internet connection and keep for future reference
From time to time we make a copy of the entire website in a format that you can download and run standalone on a local computer with NO Internet Connection, the file is about 6 GB in size and requires WinZip to open, click here to download

Articles on this site from 2009 to December 2013


The Creator Desires a Deep Relationship with YOU

Seven Components in Growing Close to Yah

Recommended Worship

Where will YOU Spend Eternity?

WHY Believe in the Almighty Creator and seek relationship with Him

What Actually Happens when someome comes to believe

The First Eight Days after first believing in the Creator

Triple Immersion as a powerful means of cleansing

Fasting as a vital component of being a believer

Worship is essential in drawing close to the Almighty

What to Read once you have come to belief

The First Year after coming to belief

Those who come to limited belief initially

Those who come to limited belief initially

The TRUE Name of the Creator is Yah the Eternally Self-Existing

The TRUE Names of the Almighty in the Bible -- Detailed Analysis -- Abstract

Objective, Technical Notes And Technical Caveat

Words Translated "God"

Names Including Yah

Further Words Which Refer To Yah

Names Including Yah

Additional Words Which Relate To Yah

Instances Of Jehovah And Jah = Yah In The Hebrew Lexicon Of The Online Bible

Instances Of Yah In The Hebrew Lexicon Of The Online Bible

Closure Regarding The Name Of Yah

This website is the culmination of applying Engineering Principles to the matters of the Almighty Creator since 1993

Yah, the Creator, desires to have deep personal relationships with people who become His friends

Creator Desires Deep Relationship

7 Components of Growing Close to Yah

Recommended Worship

Where will YOU Spend Eternity?


About James Robertson -- An engineering approach to religion and knowledge of the Most High Creator of the Heavens and the Earth, Yah the eternally self-existing

Headlines of the walk of James Robertson with the Almighty Creator (Yah the Eternally Self-Existing)

About End Time Issue Ministries

James Robertson's Business interests -- James A Robertson and Associates Limited -- Executive Level Consulting with Regard to the Effective High Value Application of Business Information Systems

What to do if you disagree with me

Our Logo

Building a close relationship with Yah the Eternally Self Existing, the Almighty Creator

Key Principles with regard to relationship with Yah

Why are we here?

Stages in the Relationship with the Almighty Creator

The Anointing of the Spirit of the Almighty

Worship of the Almighty

Prayer and petition to the Almighty

Prayer in agreement

Fasting as a vital component of drawing close to the Almighty

Hearing Yah

Judge me Severely and correct me harshly

Yah's Emotions -- He has feelings too

Daddy Yah is LONELY please talk to Him and use His true Name

Did YOU bring JOY to your Daddy Today?

Seeking to live a Life WITHOUT Sin

Overcoming and a High Throne

The Continuum between Yah and Satan

Drawing Closer to Yah

Drawing Close to Yah

Chesed = Covenant Love

Yah's Still Small Voice

Visions and Dreams

What IS Inspiration?

If Yah is moving Hold your Peace

The Authority of Believers

Obedience is a vital element of relationship

If you love Yah keep His commandments

You are NOT a glove puppet you ARE accountable

Sacrifice -- The Death of the Stake

Death with Yahooshua

Further Principles relating to Relationship with Yah

Who to Listen To

Even the highly anointed are falling away

Yah is everywhere

Relationship with Yah NOT worship of intellect

The Majority is ALWAYS Wrong

Specific Messages from the Almighty

Yah speaks to James

Yah speaks to the Church

Yah speaks to Believers Generally

Yah speaks to South Africa

Yah speaks to the World

Yah calls His Servants NOT Man

Yah works through His anointed ones

What IS Inspiration?

The Seventy Facets of Yah's Jewelled Words

A Guide to Receiving Personal Prophecy

Seek Truth

Seek Truth NOT Error

Yah's Commandments are BEST

Important Truths

Satan's Most Effective Lies

Pastors and the Church

The Contest

Rules of Engagement

Yah HAS to work through sons of Adam

Satan HAS to work through sons of Adam

The Forces of Darkness Rule on Earth and Yah is Constrained to act through believers

The REAL battle is between the highly anointed versus the highly illuminated ones

Descent into ALL Error

Yahooshua led a Life without Sin

Satan to the Pit

Recovering Lost Truth

A Son of Adam on the Last Day

IF Satan Wins the Contest

IF Satan Loses

Who ARE "Demons"

The Masterminds

Illuminated versus Anointed

Satan's Devices

Combat in the Heavenly Realm

Yah could do MUCH more in earlier years

All authority and dominion on earth has been given to humans, Yah and Satan are constrained to act through them


What IS Hell?

Why IS Hell?

Visits to Hell

Korean Artist

Bill Weise

Angelica Zambrano

Choo Thomas

No one is intentionally going to hell

There are good decent people in hell

Satan rules the world through the leadership of Demonic Masterminds and human Satan Servants

Satan to Pit 2003


Recommended Worship


Important Prayers

The Most Important Prayers


What IS Covenant?

The Blood of a Covenant Means Death to the Person who breaks the Covenant

Covenant between Man and Woman

Tattoos and Piercings


The Importance of Words

Words that Kill

Words that Bring Life

Right Confession

Words with Pagan / Satanic Impact

Words are Spiritual


Take Care is a Curse




The Bible

What to Read Instead

Old Testament versus New Testament

"The WORD" is Semantic Nonsense

The bible is the most pervasive idol

Diverse Articles relevant to the discussion about the Bible

The Essence of the issues relating to the Bible

Positive aspects of “The Bible”

Summing up re “The Bible”

About the Bible

The Arrogance of Christian Ignorance

Relationship with the Almighty NOT Worship of Intellect

Getting close to Yah Appropriate prayer and fasting are VITAL (the answer to doctrinal differences)

IF the Bible IS corrupt then WHAT do I do?

Satan’s Lies – Response to Rebuttal

“The bible is a corrupt book compiled by corrupt men”

The Majority is ALWAYS Wrong

Further Articles relevant to the discussion about the Bible -- Section 2

Bible study versus deep relationship

Demonically inspired bible versions -- rebuttal

Demonically inspired bible versions

Believers who abdicate their intellect

Your Heavenly Account

The contents of the bible are but a pin prick in the history of mankind

Clarification re THE WORD

New Testament? No No No

Further Articles relevant to the discussion about the Bible -- Section 3

Yah is at SOME measure in EVERY book (and so is Satan through his demons)

Clarification -- there IS good in the bible

The King James Version of the bible is NOT THE definitive English translation

Yah works through His anointed prophets NOT committees

The origin of the Christian bible

Those who followed Yahooshua did NOT know Torah

What IS inspiration?

The seventy facets of Yah's jeweled words

Further Articles relevant to the discussion about the Bible -- Section 4

The bible IS a useful reference work – period

Covenant – NOT New Testament

James: What do YOU believe about the bible? REALLY?

Pastors – the Prison Warders of Yah's people

Why Yah could do much greater works thousands of years ago (level of anointing and level of prayer)

Proof of a Global Flood -- Turning history on its head

Where will YOU spend eternity?

Are visions precise and free of error?

Understanding Satan's devices

Clergy versus laity

The Name of Yah in the book {bible}

The TRUE Names of the Almighty in the Bible -- Summary

What is the origin and the purpose of man? -- creation versus evolution

Older Articles -- Prior to 2009

Conclusion -- The Bible is NOT what is claimed for it

Yah (The Almighty) says that the bible is "the Greatest Idol" on earth today

Anointed Life

Anointed Life Part 1

What or Who IS an Anointed One?

Worship is Critical

Filled with the Spirit of Yah

Led by the Spirit of Yah

Guardian Messengers {Angels}


Death with Yahooshua

The Mind of Yah



Supply of Needs

Poverty in the Body of Believers

Anointed Life Part 2

Power Anointing

In the World NOT OF the World

Yah is everywhere

The Race

The Armour

Trust and Belief


Your Heavenly Account


Anointed Life Part 3

Good and Faithful Servant


Angelo beggar on a high throne

Authority of Believer

Works that Yahooshua did



Immersion NOT Baptism

Tearing Down Strongholds

The Battle

Spiritual Warfare

The 144,000

Single Anointed Women

Anointed Life Part 4









Let your Yes be Yes


Judge me Severely and correct me Harshly that I may serve You more perfectly

Seek Truth NOT Error

Anointed Life Part 5

Man and Woman in Harmony


Right Confession

Four phases of the Wilderness

Critical Success Factors for Life

Highly Anointed Ones Make Mistakes and Sin

Even the highly anointed are falling away



Body Mind and Spirit


Believe in Yah the Eternally Self-Existing, the Almighty

Chesed {love} the Almighty with all your heart, mind, soul and strength

Yah is ONE

Who IS Yah?

Who IS Yahooshua?

Who IS Satan?

Demonic "gods"

No Trinity

NO Idols

Not Worship the Bible

Not Worship Jesus

Not Worship Cross

Not Worship People

Not Worship Things

Name Yah NOT in Vain


Yes in Afrikaans and German

True Names

Keep Sabbaths

Day Begins at Sunrise

True Sabbath Saturday Sunrise

New Moons

1st Aviv

Pesach -- Passover

Shavuot -- Pentecost

Yom Teruah -- Day of Trumpets

Yom Kippur -- Day of Atonement

Sukkot -- Tabernacles 1st Day

Sukkot -- Tabernacles Great Day

False Sabbaths

Levites BREAK the Sabbath

Chesed {love} your Neighbor as yourself

Honor Parents


Curse Mother or Father and Die

NOT Old Age Homes

NO Murder

NO Abortion

NO Abortive Contraception

Death Penalty for Murder

WHY Death Penalty?

NO False Teachings

Anal intercourse is valid birth control

NO Adultery

What IS Adultery?

Breaking Covenant / Treachery


Male with Male

Female with Female


Serial Polygamy



Chick Flicks are Pornography TOO


Phone / Skype Sex

Oral and Anal Sex

Church Marriage

False Monogamy

NO Stealing

Most Prosperity Teaching is Fraud

Fraudulent Contracts

Misrepresentation in Sales

Outright Theft


NO False Witness or Lying

False Teaching by Church

False Teaching in Other Religions

Misrepresentation in Sales

White Lies

ALL Liars will burn

Believe Lies and Die

NO Coveting or Lusting



Most Adverts

Valentines Heart

Lust is visible in the spirit realm

The MARK of the Beast

All of the 10 Commandments as well as the Principal Commandment have been almost universally broken and made of NO effect

The Satanic

The Satanic Part 1

Who is Satan

Fallen Messenger

Principalities, Powers, Thrones, Dominions, etc

We wrestle NOT against flesh and blood

Combat in the Heavenly Realm

The Forces of Darkness Reign and Yah is constrained to act through believers

Illuminated Ones



Ancestor Spirits {Demons}


If Jesus is living in your heart you have a problem

The Satanic Part 2


Take Care is a Curse

Secret Societies

Free Masonry

The Authority of the Believer


Satan's Most Effective Lies

Lilith Adam's first wife

The Satanic Part 3

Treachery is a Spiritual Force

The Peace of Satan

Fear is Faith in the Satanic

Tsunami of Evil Covers the Planet

Satans Devices

What is REALLY happening

Satan sentenced to one thousand years in the Pit on 3 May 2003

Power from drinking blood

Power from eating human flesh

Power from murder

Satanic Dominion

General Satanic

True Names




Mighty One


My Darling Mighty One


Anointing of Yah


Other True Names

The TRUE name of the prophet from Nazareth is "Yahooshua" NOT "Jesus"

Blasphemous Names

Grace withdrawn






Other Incorrect Names



NOT Christ

True Sabbaths

Day Begins at Sunrise

True Sabbath Saturday Sunrise

New Moons

1st Aviv

Pesach -- Passover

Shavuot -- Pentecost

Yom Teruah -- Day of Trumpets

Yom Kippur -- Day of Atonement

Sukkot -- Tabernacles 1st Day

Sukkot Great Day

Year of Jubilee

Saturday is the 7th day of the week and is Yah's true weekly Sabbath

Satanic Feasts



On what day was Yahooshua born?


New Year

Valentine's Day

Other Satanic Feasts

Sunday Sabbath

Sunday is the Pagan day of the Sun god and is NOT appropriate for worshipping Yah, the Almighty Creator

Christmas is a Pagan Feast and is an abomination in the sight of the Almighty Creator

Yahooshua died on a Stake NOT a Cross

It is NOT Baptism it is Immersion

The Coninuum between Good and Evil


True Religion

The Great Falling Away

Even the highly anointed are falling away

Seek Truth NOT Error

The End of the Age



Most Christians are NOT Anointed Ones

The Church put Yahooshua to Death

If Jesus is living in your heart you have a problem

Clergy versus Laity

Judgement on the church of Jesus Christ

Planet X Nibiru


Believers who Beg

History Revisited

This Evil Generation

Christian Denominations

Roman Catholic


Jehovah's Witnesses




Who IS Allah

Other Religions

The Inquisitions have had a major impact on believers today

The upsurge of civilization following the Reformation, that is the Renaissance, masks the long term degradation of human beings over time

The turnaround prophets of history are Noah, Moshe, Yahooshua, Mohammed and Luther -- we need to understand their role to understand the world today

The True Religion of the Almighty Creator, Yah, is a synthesis of, and bracketed by, Judaism, Christianity and Islam

Christianity has from the outset compromized with paganism and almost every doctrine of Christianity is fatally corrupt and does NOT define the Creator

Tithes are Invalid in this age

Judaism is one of the three main religions serving the Creator

Islam is the third of the main religions serving the Creator


Yahooshua Part 1

Who IS Yahooshua

Yahooshua IS the mightiest CREATED being in the entire creation

Yahooshua was an OLD Testament Prophet

How DID Yahooshua Accomplish what he did?

Thank Yah that the Jews Killed Jesus

Why Yahooshua HAD to die THAT way

Father forgive them they do not know what they are doing

My Darling why have You forsaken me?

The Covenant of Yahooshua

As oft as you eat it in remembrance of Yahooshua

Death with Yahooshua

Yahooshua Part 2

Yahooshua is WAITING for his enemies to be made his footstool

What IS special about Yahooshua?

Yahooshua will return once the true message has been preached to ALL the earth

The Church put Yahooshua to Death

Authority IN the Name of Yahooshua

LIMITATIONS in the Name of Yahooshua

The Blood of the Covenant

Who Yahooshua is NOT

Old Testament versus New Testament

On what day was Yahooshua born?

Those who followed Yahooshua did NOT know Torah

Greater Works than Yahooshua did

There is NO Trinity

Yahooshua is NOT the ONLY way

The man Yahooshua, commonly called Jesus was and is a human being and is NOT the Creator

Yahooshua, commonly called "Jesus" will only return around 3003 and is NOT "coming soon"

The Great Falling Away is right now


Judgment in THIS Life

Judgment of Believers Who Die

Judgment of Unbelievers Who Die

The Day of Judgment

High Throne with Yahooshua

The Outer Darkness in Heaven

The Foolish Virgins in Heaven

The Lake of Fire and Brimstone

Satan to the Pit for a Thousand Years

Judgement on the church of Jesus Christ

Judgment at the End of the Age

Yahooshua is WAITING UNTIL his enemies are made his FOOTSTOOL

Yahooshua will return when the true message has been preached to ALL the world

No one is intentionally going to Hell

Few people are intending to become demons

Obedience as a Basis of Judgement

Judgment THIS Life





Judge me Severely and Correct me Harshly that I may serve You more Perfectly

Believing Men in Lack

Highly anointed ones also make mistakes and sin


Burn for Eternity Yes? or No?

Where will YOU Spend Eternity?

Part 1 of the eBook -- Where will YOU Spend Eternity?

A Critical Question

An Important Caveat

Where will YOU Spend Eternity?

A Vital question: Do we know what sin is? - What is the essence of Judgment?

Cause for Concern - Nearly ALL of mankind is breaking most of the commandments

Part 2 of the eBook -- Where will YOU Spend Eternity?

Is there an alternative? -- can one aspire to a High Throne?

It is NOT just heaven or the lake of fire, there is a continuum

It IS POSSIBLE to overcome

What indicators are there about pleasing the Almighty?

How do we overcome? What is the Price?

Some challenging passages from The Final Quest

Joyner's experience of the Judgment


The Final Quest by Rick Joyner

Yah speaks on Rick Joyner

The Call by Rick Joyner

Critical Success Factors for Life

Creation versus Evolution -- What is the Origin and Purpose of Man?

Engineered Creation

Sexual reproduction proves there is a Creator

Part 1 of the book What is the origin and purpose of man


An important assumption and some painful deductions

Some important preparatory points

Use of statistics from

Argument from Incredulity

Progressive development versus Instantaneous Creation

Other religions and spirits

Some other issues with certain religious views of creation

What next?

Part 2 of the book What is the origin and purpose of man


Does this mean deadlock?

A Different approach?

Some issues that arise from the above questions

Science - Engineering - Religion


Suggested principles for further analysis

"Planned (Engineered) Creative Evolution" versus "Unplanned (Unengineered) Spontaneous Evolution"

Part 3 of the book What is the origin and purpose of man

Evidence in Immediate Physical Environment

Tying up loose ends

Various bits and pieces

Some other considerations regarding creation versus evolution

Soft attributes of human beings

 If all else fails, ask for a "sign"?



The World Before the Flood

The Flood Itself

The World After the Flood

Understanding the Impact of the Flood

Why Millions of Years is Invalid

Flood Videos

Overview of the Flood Videos

Section 1 -- Proof of a Global Flood -- Introduction

Section 2: Gold Mines -- Evidence of Massive Hydraulic Flood Action

Section 3: Layered Sedimentary Rocks -- Evidence of a Global Flood

Section 4: The Halfwayhouse Granite Dome -- Massive Surface Disruption

Section 5: African Erosion Surface -- massive flood cutting action

Section 6: Incised Valley deep in massive Granite -- evidence of massive flood action

Section 7: The REAL Age of all this - a flood as recently as 4,500 years ago?

Section 8: Signs Of Judgment -- Real Mount Sinai and Ten Commandments

Section 9: Where DID the water came from? And where did it go? -- Proof of a Global Flood

Section 10: Summing Up -- Proof of a Global Flood

Section 11: End Notes -- Proof of Global Flood

There is global proof of a global catastrophe which is FAR beyond a "flood"

Evolutionary Creation is the ONLY practical explanation of what exists today


The Spiritual Nature of Sex

Yah Created Sex and it was good

The Virgins Covenant

Sex is a Covenant Act

The One-Flesh Bond

Making Love

Transfer of Demons

Soul Ties


Role of Man

Role of Woman

Monogamy and sexual lovemaking

The Bed is Undefiled

The Joy of Sex

Sex -- Permitted and Prohibited

"Sex Before Marriage"

One Night Stands

Men with Men

Women with Women

Anal Sex

Oral Sex




Sexual Thoughts


Spiritual Separation of Man and Woman

Coping with Sexual Need

The Virgin's Covenant is CRITICAL to understand sex, marriage, adultery and divorce

Men & Women

Men and Women and covenant

The Virgins Covenant

Age to Marry



Cleave is NOT Adhere

Isaiah 4:1

Men and Women and Family


Separation of Man and Woman







Is Polygamy Scriptural?



The Book -- The Scriptural Definition of Marriage, Adultery and Divorce

Preamble and Table of Contents

1: Introduction & Concepts

2: How does scripture define the marriage covenant?

3: What does scripture say about adultery?

4: Scriptural Divorce

5: Is monogamy scriptural?

6: Some other scriptures on marriage issues

7: The Tradition of the Elders and Other heresies

8: Consequences of the Heresy of Monogamy and Related false Doctrines

9: Summary and Conclusion

Appendices A to G

Appendices H to P

Appendices Q to V

Appendices W to Index of Key words

Man and Woman in Harmony

Marriage Strategy

Marriage Teachings

Part 1: The Coming Tribulation

Part 1: The Coming Tribulation


Part 3: Scriptural definition of Marriage, Divorce & Adultery

Part 4: Towards Heaven on Earth in Marriage

Part 5: Practical Application of Marriage Teachings

Part 6: Deliverance

Part 7. Conclusion

The Almighty designed us from the beginning such that one man can covenant with more than one woman, this is evidenced by the seal of virginity

There are seven times as many believing women as men on earth today so most need to remain celibate and single

The Responsibility of Believing men towards single believing women

A Letter to a Single Woman

The need of Single Women for Companionship

The impact of Wild Oats (children from casual sex) on the world today

The truth about Divorce



Yahs Commandments

Contest or Compromise

The Mark of the Beast

This Life


ALL are Seed of Noah

Nearly ALL alive on earth today are Seed of Abraham

Most of those alive today are Seed of Yisrael





Yahoodah {Judah}










Middle East


Babylon / Iraq


United Kingdom

Rest of Europe

North America


Central America and Bahamas

South America




The Curse of Canaan

South Africa


Rest of Africa

The Majority is Always Wrong


Yahoodite = Jew

Thank Yah that the Jews Killed Jesus

The Jews are Yisraelites and NOT Khazars

The Jews are Yisraelites and NOT Seed of Satan

Jews are NOT Ominipotent

Blessed for Relative Faithfulness


The Colour of a Person Tells Nothing About Their Bloodline

The Hammite African Spiritual Dispensation

The Curse of Canaan on many Africans


World Trade Center Demolition

New World Order etc

Do NOT Concern yourself with Conspiracy

Y2K (The Year 2000 Computer Fear) -- What WAS it? -- an immature believes conspiracy theory

The REAL Conspiracy



Annual Volumes





Articles Emailed

Creator Desires a Deep Personal Relationship with YOU

Seven Components of Drawing Close to the Almighty

Where will YOU Spend Eternity?

6010 (2013/4)

6011 (2014/5)

Particularly Important Articles and other Resources

Insights that I have gained into various topics from day to day

Table of Contents of the body of the Website

Articles to 2009 (6005)


List of Articles from 2009

Article Keyword Cloud

Article Categories

Contact Us


The REAL Contest

What IF Satan WINS?

Satanic Dominion

Where are YOU headed for Eternity?

What should YOU do about the direction of your life today?

The ULTIMATE GOAL -- deep personal friendship with the Almighty Creator of the Heavens and the Earth

The ULTIMATE SIN -- unbelief -- believing the Almighty Creator does NOT exist -- by default allegiance to Satan

The TRAP to prevent you achieving the goal of deep personal relationship with the Creator -- Jesus, the Bible, the Church and Pastors and other people

If you have questions