Appendices H to P

Diverse reference material including references to Levirate marriage, preface to Lamsa's translation of the Aramaic text, words used to describe a man or husband, references to divorce and put away and references to fornication

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Appendices H to P





The following additional passages confirm Jesus' response to the question concerning brothers marrying their deceased brother's wives:

Mark 12:18-25

18 Then some Sadducees, who say there is no resurrection, came to Him; and they asked Him, saying:

19 "Teacher, Moses wrote to us that if a man's brother dies, and leaves his wife behind, and leaves no children, his brother should take his wife and raise up offspring for his brother.

20 "Now there were seven brothers. The first took a wife; and dying, he left no offspring.

21 "And the second took her, and he died; nor did he leave any offspring. And the third likewise.

22 "So the seven had her and left no offspring. Last of all the woman died also.

23 "Therefore, in the resurrection, when they rise, whose wife will she be? For all seven had her as wife."

24 Jesus answered and said to them, "Are you not therefore mistaken, because you do not know the Scriptures nor the power of God?

25 "For when they rise from the dead, they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven. (NKJ)

Luke 20:27-36

27 Then some of the Sadducees, who deny that there is a resurrection, came to Him and asked Him,

28 saying: "Teacher, Moses wrote to us that if a man's brother dies, having a wife, and he dies without children, his brother should take his wife and raise up offspring for his brother.

29 "Now there were seven brothers. And the first took a wife, and died without children.

30 "And the second took her as wife, and he died childless.

31 "Then the third took her, and in like manner the seven also; and they left no children, and died.

32 "Last of all the woman died also.

33 "Therefore, in the resurrection, whose wife does she become? For all seven had her as wife."

34 And Jesus answered and said to them, "The sons of this age marry and are given in marriage.

35 "But those who are counted worthy to attain that age, and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry nor are given in marriage;

36 "nor can they die anymore, for they are equal to the angels and are sons of God, being sons of the resurrection. (NKJ)








The following is a verbatim quotation of the preface and introduction to Lamsa's translation of the Bible from the Peshitta (Aramaic text) with emphasis added by the author of this document. It highlights a number of issues of critical importance to any Christian seeking to better understand what the Word of God truly says versus what modern English translations would have us believe.


The favorable reception accorded the Lamsa translation of the Gospels, later of the New Testament and of the Psalms, has prompted us to publish a complete translation of The Holy Bible from the Peshitta, the authorized Bible of the Church of the East. This translation of the Old and New Testaments into English is based on Peshitta manuscripts which have comprised the accepted Bible of all of those Christians who have used Syriac as their language of prayer and worship for many centuries. It is appropriate that as we have translations based on the Greek Septuagint of the Old Testament and on the Latin Bible of Jerome, so also should there be available to the modern reader that form of the text which was translated anciently into a branch of the Aramaic language which has been used by Christians from earliest times.

In the long history of the Aramaic language, there are three periods of special interest to us. From the sixth to the fourth century before Christ, it was a language of empire extending from the borders of Persia to those of Europe, and down the Nile through the length of Egypt. It was in those days spoken and written by the Jewish people at least equally with Hebrew; and so we have parts of Ezra and Daniel, and one verse in Jeremiah (10: 11), that were composed in Aramaic and preserved in that ancient form of the language in the midst of the Hebrew Old Testament.

In the first century, Jesus and his earliest followers certainly spoke Aramaic for the most part, although they also knew Hebrew. Therefore the Gospel message was first preached in the Aramaic of the Jews of Palestine. Modern scholarship tells us that the originals of the Four Gospels and of other parts of the New Testament were written in Greek; this is disputed by the Church of the East and by some noted Western scholars. Regardless of which view one may accept, Aramaic speech is an underlying factor and it is unquestionably true that documents written in Aramaic were drawn on by writers of the New Testament, the basic inspired form of the Christian message.

Aramaic was the language of the Church that spread east, almost from the beginning of Christianity, from Antioch and Jerusalem, beyond the confines of the Roman Empire. This differed from the language of Palestine in choice of words and grammatical forms rather more extensively than does American English from British English and in written form these differences became regular and standardized. The Jews and Christians used the literary dialect of Aramaic that we call Syriac almost at the same time to propagate their translations of the sacred books brought from Palestine and the West, reaching into Syria and Mesopotamia and the nearby mountains, quite early into India, and into China in the course of time. Modern scholarship believes that as happened in other parts of the Church, the earliest copies of the sacred books in Syriac were revised again and again to bring them closer to the standard of the Hebrew and Greek texts from which they were drawn; this view, too, is not accepted by the Church of the East. Under any conditions by the fifth century A.D. the Peshitta version in its present form held the field by universal acclaim.

The fixed stand of the Church of the East with respect to some of the points mentioned above can best be understood by reference to the following letter, which we are authorized to quote, from the Patriarch and Head of that Church:

Patriarchate of the East, Modesto, California, April 5, 1957

"With reference to your letter concerning Lamsa's translation of the Aramaic Bible, and the originality of the Peshitta text, as the Patriarch and Head of the Holy Apostolic and Catholic Church of the East we wish to state, that the Church of the East received the scriptures from the hands of the blessed Apostles themselves in the Aramaic original, the language spoken by our Lord Jesus Christ himself, and that the Peshitta is the text of the Church of the East which has come down from the Biblical times without any change or revision."

Mar Eshai Shimun

by Grace, Catholicos Patriarch

of the East

From the Mediterranean east into India the Peshitta is still the Bible of preference among Christians, though today nearly all who use it speak Arabic, or one of the tongues of South India. West of the Euphrates, spoken Aramaic as a mothertongue survives today only in two mountain villages northwest of Damascus, differing as much from the speech of Jesus' day as French from its parent Latin. East of the Euphrates, in the Kurdish mountains, and near Lake Urmia, perhaps a hundred thousand people (Christian, Jew and Muslim) speak another form of it, strangely mixed with borrowed words from the various languages of their polyglot neighbors, but still basically akin to the Aramaic (Syriac) of olden times.

George M. Lamsa, B.A., F.R.S.A., the translator of this work is uniquely fitted for the task to which he has devoted the major part of his life. He is an Assyrian and a native, of ancient Biblical lands, where he lived until World War 1. Until that time, isolated from the rest of Christendom, his people retained Biblical customs and Semitic culture which had perished everywhere else. This background, together with his knowledge of the Aramaic (Syriac) language, has enabled him to recover much of the meaning that has been lost in other translations of the Scriptures.

Manuscripts used in making this translation were the Codex Ambrosianus for the Old Testament and the so-called Mortimer-McCawley manuscript for the New Testament; the former is in the Ambrosian Library at Milan, Italy, and has been identified as fifth century A.D.; the latter was used for our previous translation of the New Testament, of which this edition is a revision, and has been variously identified as sixth or seventh century A.D. Comparisons have been had with Peshitta manuscripts in the Morgan Library, New York, N. Y., with manuscripts in the Freer Collection, Washington, D. C., with the Urumiah edition, and with a manuscript of the Peshitta Old Testament in the British Museum, the oldest dated Biblical manuscript in existence. Our translator states that comparisons show no differences in text between these various manuscripts, and that he has filled in the few missing portions of Chronicles from other authentic Peshitta sources, as noted in his Introduction.

We hope that this translation will be of aid to Bible readers and students in obtaining a more thorough and complete understanding of the Scriptures.



North of the Garden of Eden in the basin of the river Tigris, in the mountain fastnesses of what is known today as Kurdistan, there lived an ancient people, the descendants of the Assyrians, the founders of the great Assyrian empire and culture in Bible days, the originators of the alphabet and many sciences which contributed so generously to the Semitic culture from which sprang our Bible. These people, the Assyrians, played an important part in the history of the Near East, of the Bible, and of religion in general.

When Nineveh was destroyed in 612 B.C., many of the princes and noblemen of this once vast empire fled northward into inaccessible mountains where they remained secluded and cut off until the dawn of the twentieth century. Nahum says: "Thy shepherds slumber, O king of Assyria: thy nobles shall dwell in the dust: thy people is scattered upon the mountains, and no man gathereth them." Nah. 3:18.

Some descendants of the Assyrians and some of the descendants of the ten tribes who were taken captive by the Assyrian kings in 721 B.C., and settled in Assyria, Babylon, Persia and other places east of the river Euphrates, were among the first converts to Christianity.

When Jesus sent seventy of his disciples to preach the gospel, he instructed them not to go in the way of the Gentiles or into any city of the Samaritans but to go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel, meaning the ten tribes who were lost from the house of Israel. Some of the descendants of these Hebrew tribes are still living in Iraq, Iran, and Turkey, and most of them still converse in Aramaic. Jesus' command was carried out. The gospel was preached to the Jews first. "Now those who had been dispersed by the persecution which occurred on account of Stephen traveled as far as Phoenicia and even to the land of Cyprus and to Antioch, preaching the word to none but to the Jews only." Acts 11: 19.

The Assyrians remained dormant during the Persian, Greek, Roman and Arab conquests. Being isolated and surrounded by their enemies, they remained secluded throughout the centuries, thus preserving the Aramaic language, which was the language of the Near East, and perpetuating the ancient Biblical customs and manners which were common to all races and peoples in this part of the ancient world. Not until the Turkish reign did these isolated Assyrian tribes recognize any government or pay any taxes. During the centuries of Arab and Turkish reigns, the Assyrians retained their cultural independence, later recognizing the sympathetic Turkish rule which permitted the continuation of their institutions and their religion. Under magnanimous Turks they were ruled by their patriarchs and chiefs, paying a nominal tax to the Turkish government.

The Assyrian church, or as it is known, the ancient Apostolic and Catholic Church of the East, was one of the strongest Christian churches in the world and was noted for its missions in the Middle East, India, and China. Its missionaries carried the Christian gospel as far as China and Mongolia, Indonesia, Japan and other parts of the world. Not until the 14th century was this church rivaled by any other church in the world. It was the most powerful branch of Christendom in the Near East, Palestine, Arabia, Lebanon, Iran, India and elsewhere. All the literature of this church was written in literary Aramaic, the lingua franca of that time. This is corroborated by Dr. Arnold J. Toynbee in his A Study of History wherein he writes: " . . . Darius the Great's account of his own acts on the rock of Behistan, overhanging the Empire's great north-east road, was transcribed in triplicate in three different adaptations of the cuneiform script conveying the three imperial capitals: Elamite for Susa, Medo-Persian for Ecbatana, and Akkadian for Babylon. But the winning language within this universal state was none of the three thus officially honoured; it was Aramaic, with its handier alphabetic script. The sequel showed that commerce and culture may be more important than politics in making a language's fortune; for the speakers of Aramaic were politically of no account in the Achaemenian Empire . . ."

The Persians used the Aramaic language because this tongue was the language of the two Semitic empires, the empire of Assyria and the empire of Babylon. Aramaic was so firmly established as the lingua franca that no government could dispense with its use as a vehicle of expression in a far-flung empire, especially in the western provinces. Moreover, without schools and other modern facilities, Aramaic could not be replaced by the speech of conquering nations. Conquerors were not interested in imposing their languages and cultures on subjugated peoples. What they wanted was taxes, spoils, and other levies.

The transition from Aramaic' into Arabic, a sister tongue, took place after the conquest of the Near East by the Moslem armies in the 7th century, A.D. Nevertheless, Aramaic lingered for many centuries and still is spoken in Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, and northwestern Iran, as well as among the Christian Arab tribes in northern Arabia. Its alphabet was borrowed by the Hebrews, Arabs, Iranians, and Mongols.

Dr. Philip K. Hitti, noted historian and Professor of Semitic languages at Princeton University, in his book The History of the Arabs, uses the terms Aramaic and Syriac interchangeably and states that Aramaic is still a living language. He says, "In country places and on their farms these dhimmis clung to their ancient cultural patterns and preserved their native languages: Aramaic and Syriac in Syria and Al-'Iraq, Iranian in Persia and Coptic in Egypt." And again, "In Al-'Iraq and Syria the transition from one Semitic tongue, the Aramaic, to another, the Arabic, was of course easier. In the out-of-the-way places, however, such as the Lebanons with their preponderant Christian population, the native Syriac put up a desperate fight and has lingered until modern times. Indeed Syriac is still spoken in Ma'lula and two other villages in Anti-Lebanon. With its disappearance, Aramaic has left in the colloquial Arabic unmistakable traces noticeable in vocabulary, accent and grammatical structure."

The late Dr. W. A. Wigram. in The Assyrians and Their Neighbours wrote: "One thing is certain, that the Assyrians boast with justice that they alone of all Christian nations still keep as their spoken language what is acknowledged to be the language of Palestine in the first century . . . "

Quoting Dr. Toynbee again from A Study of History: As for the Aramaic alphabet, it achieved far wider conquests. In 1599 A.D., it was adopted for the conveyance of the Manchu language on the eve of the Manchu conquest of China. The higher religions sped it on its way by taking it into their service. In its 'Square Hebrew' variant it became the vehicle of the Jewish Scriptures and liturgy; in an Arabic adaptation it became the alphabet of Islam . . . "

As a miracle of miracles, Aramaic and most of the ancient Biblical customs which were common to Semitic people have survived in northern Iraq until today. Aramaic is still spoken in Iraq and in northwestern Iran by remnants of the Assyrian people and the Jews of the exile, and the literary Aramaic remains the same today as it was of yore. Some of the Aramaic words which are still retained in all Bible versions are still used in the Aramaic language spoken today: for example, Raca, Ethpatakh, Rabbuh Etha, Manna, Khakal-Dema.

As we have said, the survival of this small remnant of this segment of the ancient Semitic culture was due to the isolation, tenacity, and warlike character of the Assyrian people who were living isolated, now under the Parthian Empire, now under the Persian Empire, now under the Arabian Empire and now under the Turkish Empire. And because of this isolation, these ancient Christians had hardly any contact with Christians in the West. Only one of their bishops and a deacon participated in the Nicene Council in 325 A.D.

After the conversion of Emperor Constantine to Christianity in 318 A.D., Christians in the Persian Empire who hitherto had been tolerated and looked upon as the enemies of Rome, the persecutor of Christianity, now were looked upon as the friends of the Christian emperor, Constantine, and the enemies of the Persian government. Persecution of these Christians did not begin until the 4th century A.D., and lasted until the Arab conquest of Persia, 632 A.D. This is why this ancient Church was unable to establish contacts with Western Christianity.

The Scriptures in the Church of the East, from the inception of Christianity to the present day, are in Aramaic and have never been tampered with or revised, as attested by the present Patriarch of the Church of the East. The Biblical manuscripts were carefully and zealously handed down from one generation to another and kept in the massive stone walls of the ancient churches and in caves. They were written on parchment and many of them survive to the present day. When these texts were copied by expert scribes, they were carefully examined for accuracy before they were dedicated and permitted to be read in churches. Even one missing letter would render the text void. Easterners still adhere to God's commandment not to add to or omit a word from the Scriptures. The Holy Scripture condemns any addition or subtraction or modification of the Word of God.

"You shall not add to the commandment which I command you, neither shall you take from it, but you must keep the commandments of the LORD your God which I command you." Deut. 4:2.

"Everything that I command you, that you must be careful to do; you shall not add nor take from it." Deut. 12:32.

"Do not add to his words; lest he reprove you, and you be found a liar." Prove 30:6.

"And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his portion from the tree of life and from the holy city and from the things which are written in this book." Rev. 22:19.

It is also true of the Jews and Moslems that they would not dare to alter a word of the Torah or Koran. Easterners are afraid that they may incur the curse if they make a change in the Word of God.

Some of these ancient manuscripts go back to the 5th century A.D. The oldest dated Biblical manuscript in the world is that of the four Books of Moses, 464 A.D., which now lies in the British Museum. Another one is the Codex Ambrosianus. Some of it goes back to the 7th century, some of it to the 5th century, and some of it might be earlier. This Codex is not the work of one man. Apparently some portions were written before the vowel system was invented and that would put it prior to the 5th century. The Pentateuch of the British Museum must have been written before the vowel system was invented. Aramaic documents of the 5th century and later use the vowel system, some of them fully and some in part. It is interesting to know that this vowel system was adopted by the Jews and was begun about the 5th century, A.D. In some portions of the above texts, the old Aramaic original consonantal spelling without apparatus of vowel points is well preserved. This is also true of some of the New Testament texts in the Pierpont Morgan Library, New York City.

Unfortunately many ancient and valuable Aramaic texts were lost during World War I. But printed copies of them, carefully made by American missionaries under the help and guidance of competent native scholars, are available. Moreover, a number of ancient New Testament texts, some of them going back to the 5th century A.D. are in various libraries. The New Testament texts in the Pierpont Morgan Library are among the oldest in existence.

The translator of this work has access to the existing texts; he has spent many years comparing them in the course of translating the Bible.

Astonishingly enough, all the Peshitta texts in Aramaic agree. There is one thing of which the Eastern scribes can boast: they copied their holy books diligently, faithfully, and meticulously. Sir Frederick Kenyon, Curator of the British Museum, in his book Textual Criticism of the New Testament, speaks highly of the accuracy of copying and of the antiquity of Peshitta MSS.

The versions translated from Semitic languages into Greek and Latin were subject to constant revisions. Learned men who copied them introduced changes, trying to simplify obscurities and ambiguities which were due to the work of the first translators. Present translators and Bible revisers do the same when translating the Bible, treaties, and documents from one language to another. The American Constitution, written in English, will always remain the same when new copies are made, but translations into other languages will be subject to revision. Therefore, a copy of the United States Constitution published ten years ago is far more valuable than a translation made two hundred years ago. Translations are always subject to revisions and disputes over exact meaning because words and terms of speech in one language cannot be translated easily into another without loss. This is one reason why we have so many translations and revisions of the King James version.

As said before, Aramaic was the language of Semitic culture, the language of the Hebrew patriarchs and, in the older days, the lingua franca of the Fertile Crescent. The term "Hebrew" is derived from the Aramaic word Abar or Habar which means "to cross over." This name was given to the Hebrew people simply because Abraham and the people who were with him crossed the river Euphrates and went to Palestine. Therefore, they were known by those who lived east of the river Euphrates as Hebrews, that is, "the people across the river." All branches of the great Semitic people had a common speech. How could the people of Nineveh have understood Jonah, a Hebrew prophet, had the Biblical Hebrew tongue been different from Aramaic? There were some differences similar to the differences we have in English spoken in Tennessee and that spoken in New York.

This small pastoral Hebrew tribe through which God chose to reveal himself to mankind, for several generations continued to keep its paternal and racial relations with the people who lived in Padan-Aram (Mesopotamia), and preserved customs and manners which they brought with them from Padan-Aram, and the language which their fathers spoke. Jacob changed the name of Luz to Beth-el (Aramaic-the house of God). Abraham instructed his servant not to let his son, Isaac, marry a Palestinian maid but to go to Padan-Aram to his own kindred from whence to bring a maid to his son. Years later, Jacob, the grandson of Abraham, went to Padan-Aram and married his uncle's two daughters and their handmaids and lived in Haran about twenty years. Eleven of his sons were born in Padan-Aram. The first generation of the children of Jacob went to Egypt. Their sojourn in Palestine was so brief that there was no possibility of linguistic change. That is why they spoke the language which they had learned in Padan-Aram. While in Egypt, living by themselves, they continued to use names of Aramaic derivation such as Manasseh, Ephraim, Bar-Nun, Miriam, etc.

After the captivity, Aramaic became the vernacular of the Jewish people and is still used by them in their worship. Both of the Jewish Talmuds, namely, the Babylonian and Palestinian, were written in Aramaic. The later findings, especially of Jewish-Aramaic papyri which were found in Egypt in 1900, have produced many passages in Biblical Aramaic. The discovery of the Commentary on the Book of Habakkuk in the caves of Qumran in Jordan proves that Aramaic has been in constant use from early times to the present day.

It is evident that during the exile and post-exile the Hebrew writers used Aramaic. Some of the portions of their works were put into Hebrew. Daniel and Ezra were born during the captivity. Hebrew was no longer spoken and the official language of writing in Babylon was southern Aramaic and the Jewish community had already parted with their Hebrew. (Footnote The two languages were so close that Hebrew could not be retained in Babylon) Thus, the captivity produced the transition from Hebrew, a sister language, into Aramaic.

Biblical Hebrew and Aramaic were very closely related, like American English and English spoken in England. Whether the Hebrew prophets wrote in Hebrew or Aramaic would make little difference. The differences would be like those between several Arabic dialects which are spoken in Arabia. Even though the vernacular speech differs because of local color and idioms, the norm of the written language remains the same. This is true today with written Arabic when compared with spoken Arabic. And such was the case with Attic Greek when compared with other Greek dialects. The grammar, verbs, nouns and other parts of speech are practically the same in the basic ancient Biblical Hebrew language and Aramaic. The structure of a sentence, in point of grammar and syntax of Biblical Hebrew and Aramaic, is the same. But this is not the case when translating from Hebrew or Aramaic into a totally alien tongue such as Greek, Latin, or English. Moreover, the alphabet in Hebrew and Aramaic is exactly the same and all letters are pronounced alike.

The Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol. II, tells us:

"In Palestinian Aramaic the dialect of Galilee was different from that of Judea, and as a result of the religious separation of the Jews and the Samaritans, a special Samaritan dialect was evolved, but its literature cannot be considered Jewish. To the eastern Aramaic, whose most distinctive point of difference is "n" in place of "y" as the prefix for the third person masculine of the imperfect tense of the verb, belong the idioms of the Babylonian Talmud, which most closely agree with the language of the Mandaean writings."

The strongest points in ascertaining the originality of a text are the style of writing, the idioms, and the internal evidence. Words which make sense and are easily understood in one language, when translated literally into another tongue, may lose their meaning. One can offer many instances where scores of Aramaic words, some with several meanings and others with close resemblance to other words, were confused and thus mistranslated.

This is why in Jeremiah 4: 10, we read in the King James:

" . . . Ah, LORD God! surely thou hast greatly deceived this people . . ."

The Aramaic reads:

" . . . Ah, LORD God! I have greatly deceived this people. . ." The translator's confusion is due to the position of a dot, for the position of a dot frequently determines the meaning of a word.

In Isaiah 43:28, the King James version reads:

"Therefore, I have profaned the princes of the sanctuary. . ."

The Aramaic reads:

". . . Your princes have profaned my sanctuary. . ." This error was caused by misunderstanding of a passive plural verb. The same error occurs in John 12:40, which in the Eastern Text reads:

' . . Their eyes have become blind. . . " instead of ". . . He hath blinded their eyes. . . "

In Isaiah 14:12, the Aramaic word ailel, to howl, is confused by the Hebrew word helel, light. The reference here is to the king of Babylon and not to Lucifer.

In Psalm 22:29, King James version, we read:

"All they that be fat upon earth shall eat and worship. . . and none can keep alive his own soul."

The Aramaic text reads:

"All those who are hungry (for truth) shall eat and worship . . . my soul is alive to him." The error in this instance is due to the confusion of the Aramaic words which have some resemblance. Some of these words when written by hand resemble one another. A list of words, their meanings and how they were confused one with the other will be found in this Introduction.


The term Peshitta means straight, simple, sincere and true, that is, the original.

This name was given to this ancient and authoritative text to distinguish it from other Bible revisions and translations which were introduced into some of the Churches of the East (Monophysites) after the division at Ephesus and Chalcedon in 431 and 451 A.D., respectively. This ancient Peshitta is still the only authoritative text of the Old and New Testament of all Eastern Christians in the Near East and India, the Church of the East, the Roman Catholic Church in the East, the Monophysites, and Indian Christians. This is because this text was in use for 400 years before the Christian Church was divided into several sects.

The Peshitta Old Testament contains what is known as the Books of the Apocrypha, which have been handed down in the Peshitta manuscripts together with the Books of the Law and the Books of the Prophets, and since these Apocryphal' books are included in the text they are looked upon as a sacred literature, even though they are not as commonly used as the others. Moreover this ancient New Testament text omits the story of the woman taken in adultery, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, Jude, and Revelation. (But these books are included in later Aramaic texts.) The Peshitta canon was set before the discovery of these books.

Amid persecutions, the ancient Church of the East, through God's help and protection, was able to keep these sacred writings of the Old and New Testaments in the Biblical lands in Persia and India just as the Roman Catholic Church preserved them in the West. Christianity also owes a debt to the Jewish people who preserved the Word of God amid persecution and suffering.

Therefore, Peshitta should not be confused with the 5th century Bible revisions in Aramaic and new versions which were made from Greek. None of these new revisions and versions made by the Monophysite bishops in the 5th century has ever been accepted by the Church of the East. Moreover, these bishops who left their church and joined the Greek church and produced these versions for theological reasons so that their doctrine might agree with the doctrine of the Byzantine Church, which was the powerful imperial sect, were expelled by the Patriarch of the East and their works were condemned. However, in some provinces, owing to the pressure exerted by the Byzantine emperors, these new revisions were introduced. But when the territory was occupied by the Persian government, they were destroyed.

Had the Peshitta been made by order of one of the rival churches, the others would have rejected it. But since all Christians, even the Moslems in the Middle East accept and revere the Peshitta text, it proves beyond a doubt that it was in use many centuries before the division of the Church.

The originality of the Peshitta text is strongly supported by early evidence. Aphraates quoted it. St. Ephraim wrote a commentary on it and the doctrine of Addi placed it at the apostolic times.

According to the Peshitta text, the Semitic names of people and towns and localities, in both the New and Old Testaments, agree. The names which end with "s" are retained for the western reader. In the Peshitta text, Barnabas is Barnba, Abbas is Abba, Peter is Kepa. Then again, some of the names of localities are different but older than those in other texts. For example, Rakim is used instead of Kadesh, Mathnin instead of Bashan, Amorah for Gomorah; the error in this instance is due to close similarity between gamel and ain. A town near the city of Gomorah is called Amoriah. No doubt, the pre-exile Hebrew texts used these older names.

The late Mar-Yacob (Jacob) Eugene Manna, Chaldean Roman Catholic Metropolitan of Armenia, a distinguished Aramaic scholar whose writings are in Aramaic, says that the text which is called Peshitta is without dispute even earlier than the writings which came down from the works of Bar-Dasan, who was living in the latter part of the second century. He also states that the Aramaic speech in Mesopotamia was richer and purer than the Aramaic speech of other regions. It was the richness and the beauty of this language which was used as the lingua franca by the three great empires in the Near East and Middle East which enriched the English language. The Greek and Latin translators made literal translations of the Scriptures, keeping the Semitic rhythm and sentence structure.

Indeed, the translation of the Scriptures into the English language facilitated the work of later English writers. The style of Shakespeare, Milton, and Browning could not have been what it is without the beauty of the King James translation which was inherited from Semitic languages. This is true also of all languages into which the Bible has been translated.

The Septuagint is based on early Hebrew manuscripts and not on the later ones known as the Massoretic, which were made in the 6th to the 9th centuries. In other words, there are many similarities between the Septuagint and the Peshitta text but the former contains inevitable mistranslations which were due to difficulties in transmitting Hebrew or Aramaic thought and mannerisms of speech into a totally alien tongue like Greek. But as has been said, such was not the case between Biblical Aramaic and Biblical Hebrew which are of the same origin. Josephus used Aramaic and Hebrew words indiscriminately. Thus, the term "translating" from Hebrew into Aramaic or vice versa is incorrect. It would be like one stating as having translated the United States Constitution from the Pennsylvania language into the English language or from lower German to higher German. Even before the first captivity, 721 B.C., Jewish kings, scribes, and learned men understood Aramaic. 2 Kings 18:26.

The Israelites never wrote their sacred literature in any language but Aramaic and Hebrew, which are sister languages. The Septuagint was made in the 3rd century, B.C., for the Alexandrian Jews. This version was never officially read by the Jews in Palestine who spoke Aramaic and read Hebrew. Instead, the Jewish authorities condemned the work and declared a period of mourning because of the defects in the version. Evidently Jesus and his disciples used a text which came from an older Hebrew original. This is apparent because Jesus' quotations from the Old Testament agree with the Peshitta text but do not agree with the Greek text. For example, in John 12:40, the Peshitta Old Testament and New Testament agree. This is not all. Jesus and his disciples, not only could not converse in Greek but they never heard it spoken.

We believe that the Scriptures were conceived and inspired by the Holy Spirit and written by Hebrew prophets who spoke and wrote, as the Holy Spirit moved them, to the people in their days, using idioms, similes, parables and metaphors in order to convey their messages. Moreover, these men of God sacrificed their lives that the Word of God might live. The Jewish race treasured these sacred writings as a priceless possession.

Writing was prevalent from the earliest days. The Israelites made more extensive use of the instrument of writing than neighboring nations such as the Ammonites, Moabites, and other kindred people round about them. Moses wrote the Ten Commandments; Joshua wrote on an altar which he built west of Jordan. The Israelites were admonished to fasten the commandments to their foreheads and necks and to write them on their doorsteps. Everything was written at the time it was revealed. God said to Moses,

"Now therefore write this song for them, and teach it to the children of Israel; and put it into their mouths; this song will be a witness for me against the children of Israel." Deut. 31:19.

"And the LORD answered me and said, Write the vision, and make it plain upon tablets, that he who reads it may understand it clearly." Hab. 2:2. Thus, the Old Testament Scriptures were written very early.

This is also true of the Gospels. They were written a few years after the resurrection and some of the portions were written by Matthew while Jesus was preaching. They were not handed down orally and then written after the Pauline Epistles, as some western scholars say; they were written many years before those Epistles. Other contemporary Jewish literature was produced at the same time the Gospels were in circulation. The Gospels, as well as the Epistles, were written in Aramaic, the language of the Jewish people, both in Palestine and in the Greco-Roman Empire.

Greek was never the language of Palestine. Josephus' book on the Jewish Wars was written in Aramaic. Josephus states that even though a number of Jews had tried to learn the language of the Greeks, hardly any of them succeeded.

Josephus wrote (42 A.D.): "I have also taken a great deal of pains to obtain the learning of the Greeks, and understand the elements of the Greek language; although I have so accustomed myself to speak our own tongue, that I cannot pronounce Greek with sufficient exactness. For our nation does not encourage those that learn the language of many nations. On this account, as there have been many who have done their endeavors, with great patience, to obtain this Greek learning, there have yet hardly been two or three that have succeeded herein, who were immediately rewarded for their pains." Antiquities XX, XI 2.

Indeed, the teaching of Greek was forbidden by Jewish rabbis. It was said that it was better for a man to give his child meat of swine than to teach him the language of the Greeks.

When the King James translation was made, western scholars had no access to the East as we have today. In the 16th century, A.D., the Turkish empire had extended its borders as far as Vienna. One European country after another was falling under the impact of the valiant Turkish army. Europe was almost conquered. This is not all. The reformations and controversies in the Western Church had destroyed Christian unity. Moreover, the Scriptures in Aramaic were unknown in Europe. The only recourse scholars had was to Latin and to a few portions of Greek manuscripts. This is clearly seen from the works of Erasmus. Besides, the knowledge of Greek was almost lost at this time and Christians were just emerging from the Dark Ages.

Many people have asked why the King James' translators did not use the Peshitta text from Aramaic or the Scriptures used in the East. The answer is: there were no contacts between East and West until after the conquest of India by Great Britain and the rise of the imperial power of Britain in the Near East, Middle East, and the Far East. It is a miracle that the King James' translators were able to produce such a remarkable translation from sources available in this dark period of European history. Even fifty years ago, the knowledge of Western scholars relative to the Eastern Scriptures in Aramaic and the Christian Church in the East was conjectural. Moreover, these scholars knew very little of the Eastern customs and manners in which the Biblical literature was nurtured. Thank God, today new discoveries have been made; new facts have come to light; new democratic institutions and governments have been established in the East. What in the 16th and 17th centuries was viewed at a long distance now can be seen face to face. Today, not only scholars, ministers, and Bible teachers walk on Palestinian soil but also thousands of men and women visit Biblical lands every year.

For centuries translations from Semitic languages have been subject to revision. They are, even now, subject to revision. This is why there are so many Bible versions varying each from the other. Let us just take one instance which I consider very important. In the King James version, we read in Numbers 25:4:

"And the LORD said unto Moses, Take all the heads of the people, and hang them up before the LORD against the sun, that the fierce anger of the LORD may be turned away from Israel."

The Aramaic reads:

"And the LORD said to Moses, Take all the chiefs of the people and expose them before the LORD in the daylight that the fierce anger of the LORD may be turned away from the children of Israel."

Some noted Greek scholars in recent translations have changed the word hang to execute, but this is not what the original writer said. God could not have told Moses to behead or execute all Israelites. The Lord was angry at the princes of Israel because of the sin of Baal-peor. They had been lax in enforcing the law and also guilty in joining the sensual Baal worship.

And in I Corinthians 7:36 and 38, King James, we read:

"But if any man think that he behaveth himself uncomely toward his virgin, if she pass the flower of her age, and needs so require, let him do what he will, he sinneth not: let them marry." "So then he that giveth her in marriage doeth well; but he that giveth her not in marriage doeth better."

The Aramaic reads:

"If any man thinks that he is shamed by the behavior of his virgin daughter because she has passed the marriage age and he has not given her in marriage and that he should give her, let him do what he will and he does not sin. Let her be married." "So then he who gives his virgin daughter in marriage does well; and he who does not give his virgin daughter in marriage does even better." Some of the scholars use "betrothed" instead of "virgin daughter." The American Standard Version of 1901 correctly used the term "virgin daughter." Certainly the King James' translators would have known the difference between "virgin daughter" and "betrothed." Paul, in this instance, is referring to a virgin's vow. Num. 30:16.

These discrepancies between various versions have been the cause of contentions and divisions among sincere men and women who are earnestly seeking to understand the Word of God. At times, they do not know what to believe and what not to believe. They cannot understand why the Scripture in one place says, "Love your father and mother" and in another place admonishes, "Hate your

father and mother." Moreover, they are bewildered when told that Jesus on the cross cried out, "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?" The King James says in John 16:32, "Behold, the hour cometh, yea, is now come, that ye shall be scattered, every man to his own, and shall leave me alone: and yet I am not alone, because the Father is with me." Then again, the Old Testament in many instances states that God does not forsake the righteous nor those who trust in him. Jesus was the son of God and entrusted his spirit to God. Jesus could not have contradicted himself.

The Peshitta text reads "My God, my God, for this I was spared!"

After all the Bible is an Eastern Book, written primarily for the Israelites, and then for the Gentile world.

When we come to the New Testament, the new Covenant, we must not forget that Christianity grew out of Judaism. The Christian gospel was another of God's messages, first to the Jewish people and then to the Gentile world. For several centuries, the Christian movement was directed and guided by the Jews. All of the apostles and the evangelists were Jewish. These facts are strongly supported by the

gospels and history.

The Pauline Epistles were letters written by Paul to small Christian congregations in Asia Minor, Greece, and Rome. These early Christians were mostly Jews of the dispersion, men and women of Hebrew origin who had been looking for the coming of the promised Messiah whose coming was predicted by the Hebrew prophets who had hailed him as a deliverer.

At the outset, the Romans were the masters of the world and the Greeks were not looking for a deliverer to rise up from among a people whom they hated and had crushed. Paul, on his journeys, always spoke in the Jewish synagogues. His first converts were Hebrews. Then came Arameans, the kindred of the Hebrews, as in the case of Timothy and Titus. Their fathers were Aramean and their mothers were Jewish.

Jesus and his disciples spoke the Galilean dialect of Aramaic, the language which the early Galileans had brought from the other side of the river Euphrates. 2 Kings 17:22-25. Mark tells us in his Gospel, 14:70 that Peter was exposed by his Galilean Aramaic speech.

Paul, in all of his Epistles, emphasizes Hebrew law, Jewish ordinances and temple rituals. He refers to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob as "our fathers." In his letters and teaching he appeals to the Jewish people to accept Jesus as the promised Messiah. Paul's mission was first to his own people. When they refused to listen to him, he shook his 'garment and went out among the Gentiles. Acts 18:6. Paul preached the Christian gospel written in Aramaic. His Epistles were written years later when Christianity had spread into Syria and parts of the Near East and India. In other words, the Pauline Epistles were letters addressed to the Christian churches already established. Moreover, Paul, in nearly all of his Epistles, speaks of the Hebrew fathers, subjugation in Egypt, crossing the Red Sea, eating manna, and wandering in the desert. This proves beyond a doubt that these letters were written to members of the Hebrew race and not to the Gentile world who knew nothing of Hebrew history and divine promises made to them. The Greeks had not been persecuted in Egypt nor did they cross the Red Sea, nor did they eat manna in the desert.

Paul was educated in Jewish law in Jerusalem. He was a member of the Jewish Council. His native language was western Aramaic but he acquired his education through Hebrew and Chaldean or Palestinian Aramaic, the language spoken in Judea. He defended himself when on trial in his own tongue and not in Greek. Acts 22:2. Paul was converted, healed, and baptized in Damascus in Syria. Acts 9:17,18. The Epistles were translated into Greek for the use of converts who spoke Greek. Later they were translated into Latin and other tongues. I believe that this translation of the Bible based on the Eastern text of the Scriptures, written in a Semitic tongue which for many centuries was the lingua franca of the Near East and Palestine, will throw considerable light on many obscure passages and that it will elucidate many other passages which have lost their meaning because of mistranslations.

Many church authorities in the Near East, India, and other parts of Asia have been looking for a long time for a translation of their venerable Aramaic text of the Scriptures into the English language. Many of them, despite their religious differences, have prayed for the translation and publication of this work so that thousands of educated men and women whose second language is English might read the Word of God translated from their own ancient text rather than made from secondary sources. This is also true of thousands of educated Moslems who revere Peshitta and look upon it as the authentic text of the Scriptures.

All the English speaking people in Asia will welcome a translation based on what they believe to be the pure original sources which have been carefully kept all these centuries without the slightest modification or revision. I firmly believe that this work will strengthen the faith in Jesus Christ of many Christians in the Near East and Far East and enhance missionary efforts in spreading the Word of God to millions of people in Asia. These were the facts which motivated me

when I undertook this task, to which I have devoted my life.

Since World War 1, when the Aramaic speaking people were brought to the attention of the Western world and some of their ancient books brought to America, more facts from the ancient past have come to light. The National Geographic Magazine, as well as British and American newspapers have touched on the question of the Aramaic speaking people. The National Geographic Magazine in an article on Syria and Lebanon, December, 1946, speaks of Assyrian nurses, newly trained in Christian healing, who could have understood The Sermon on the Mount as it left Jesus' lips nearly two thousand years ago. The article also mentions The Four Gospels According to the Eastern Version, translated by George M. Lamsa, an Assyrian, from Aramaic into English, and states that Aramaic is the still living language which Jesus spoke.

The translator wishes to express his sincerest and deepest gratitude to Dr. Walter D Ferguson of Temple University for editorial work, for his sincere interest in this translation, for his rich knowledge and understanding of the Biblical background, and also for his inspiration and enthusiasm. I am also indebted to many others for consultation, among them my countrymen, Archdeacon Saul Neesan and the Rev. Isaac Rehana; also to a number of Jewish scholars.

The translator is also grateful to the men and women of many denominations whose generous interest and financial help enabled me to complete this work. God only can reward them for their generous part in this work.

I wish also to state that I firmly believe in the Bible as the inspired Word of God. I believe in the miracles and wonders which God wrought in the past and which are still demonstrated today. May the Holy Word of God give us faith, wisdom, and understanding to grasp the inner meaning of God's Holy Word and to make us partakers in His Kingdom. May the blessings of God rest upon the readers and students of this translation. May God's richest blessings be upon this country without whose freedom and democratic institutions, this translation could not have been made.

"Thy word is a lamp to my feet and a light to my path." Psalm 119:105.






The word "aner" is used in the Greek to describe a man or husband. Following are some additional descriptions of this word in support of the discussion in section 57, page 167.

Strong's defines 435 aner (an-ayr');

a primary word [compare 444]; a man (properly as an individual male):

KJV-- fellow, husband, man, sir.


aner ^435^ denotes, in general, "a man, an adult male" (in contrast to anthropos, which generically denotes "a human being, male or female"); it is used of man in various relations, the context deciding the meaning; it signifies "a husband," e. g., <Matt. 1:16,19; Mark 10:12; Luke 2:36; 16:18; John 4:16,17,18; Rom. 7:23>. See MAN. (from Vine's Expository Dictionary of Biblical Words, Copyright (C) 1985, Thomas Nelson Publishers)


2. aner ^435^ is never used of the female sex; it stands (a) in distinction from a woman, <Acts 8:12; 1 Tim. 2:12>; as a husband, <Matt. 1:16; John 4:16; Rom. 7:2; Titus 1:6>; (b) as distinct from a boy or infant, <1 Cor. 13:11>; metaphorically in <Eph. 4:13>; (c) in conjunction with an adjective or noun, e. g., <Luke 5:8>, lit., "a man, a sinner"; <24:19>, lit., "a man, a prophet"; often in terms of address, e. g., <Acts 1:16; 13:15, 26; 15:7,13>, lit., "men, brethren"; with gentilic or local names (virtually a title of honor), e. g., <Acts 2:14; 22:3>, lit., "Judean men," "a Judean man"; <3:12; 5:35>, lit., "Israelite men"; <17:22>, "Athenian men"; <19:35>, lit., "Ephesian men"; in <Acts 14:15> it is used in addressing a company of "men," without any descriptive term. In this verse, however, the distinction between aner and anthropos (2nd part) is noticeable; the use of the latter comes under No. 1 (e); (d) in general, "a man, a male person" (used like the pronoun tis, No. 3), "a man" (i. e., a certain "man"), e. g., <Luke 8:41>; in the plural, <Acts 6:11>. (Vine's, op cit)


1. aner ^435^ denotes "a man," in relation to his sex or age; in <Acts 17:5> (plural) it is rendered "fellows," as more appropriate to the accompanying description of them. See HUSBAND, MAN, SIR. (Vine's op cit)


2. aner ^435^, "a man," is translated "sirs" in <Acts 7:26; 14:15; 19:25; 27:10,21,25>. See MAN.

Note: In <John 21:5> the KJV marg. has "sirs" for paidia, "children." (Vine's op cit)

There can be no doubt that the word "aner" does not, in itself, determine the marital state of a man. In fact, as with the words "gune" and "ishshah" described elsewhere, the same conclusion must be reached. That is that it was relatively uncommon for a man to be unmarried and, accordingly, there was no word, other than perhaps eunuch, necessary to describe such a state.




The word divorce is widely used in the church to describe a condition which the Bible refers to as "put away".

Malachi 2:13-16 states:

13 And this have ye done again, covering the altar of the LORD with tears, with weeping, and with crying out, insomuch that he regardeth not the offering any more, or receiveth it with good will at your hand.

14 Yet ye say, Wherefore? Because the LORD hath been witness between thee and the wife of thy youth, against whom thou hast dealt treacherously: yet is she thy companion, and the wife of thy covenant.

15 And did not he make one? Yet had he the residue of the spirit. And wherefore one? That he might seek a godly seed. Therefore take heed to your spirit, and let none deal treacherously against the wife of his youth.

16 For the LORD, the God of Israel, saith that he hateth putting away: for one covereth violence with his garment, saith the LORD of hosts: therefore take heed to your spirit, that ye deal not treacherously. (KJV)

The word translated "putting away" in Malachi 2:16 and translated "divorce" in most other translations, is Strong's number 7971 "shalach":

Vines defines shalach under the term "SEND":

A. Verb.

shalach ^7971^, "to send, stretch forth, get rid of." This verb occurs in the Northwest Semitic languages (Hebrew, Phoenician, and Aramaic). It occurs in all periods of Hebrew and in the Bible about 850 times. Biblical Aramaic uses this word 14 times.

Basically this verb means "to send," in the sense of (1) to initiate and to see that such movement occurs or (2) to successfully conclude such an action. In <Gen. 32:18> the second emphasis is in view-- these animals are "a present sent unto my lord Esau." In <Gen. 38:20> the first idea is in view: When "Judah sent the kid by the hand of his friend..., he found her not"; it never reached its goal. In <1 Sam. 15:20> Saul told Samuel about the "way which the lord sent" him; here, too, the emphasis is on the initiation of the action.

The most frequent use of shalach suggests the sending of someone or something as a messenger to a particular place: "...he shall send his angel before thee, and thou shalt take a wife unto my son from thence" <Gen. 24:7>; God's angel (messenger) will be sent to Nahor to prepare things for the successful accomplishment of the servant's task. One may also "send a word" by the hand of a messenger (fool); one may send a message <Prov. 26:6>, send a letter <2 Sam. 11:14>, and send instructions <Gen. 20:2>.

Shalach can refer to shooting arrows by sending them to hit a particular target: "And he sent out arrows, and scattered them..." <2 Sam. 22:15>. In <Exod. 9:14> God "sends" His plague into the midst of the Egyptians; He "sends" them forth and turns them loose among them. Other special meanings of this verb include letting something go freely or without control: "Thou givest thy mouth to evil..." <Ps. 50:19>.

Quite often this verb means "to stretch out." God was concerned lest after the Fall Adam "put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life" <Gen. 3:22>. One may stretch forth a staff <1 Sam. 14:27> or a sickle <Joel 3:13>.

For the most part the intensive stems merely intensify the meanings already set forth, but the meaning "to send away" is especially frequent: "...Abner was no longer with David in Hebron, for David had sent him away..." <2 Sam. 3:22>, NIV. That is, David "let him go" <v. 24>, NIV. God sent man out of the garden of Eden; He made man leave <Gen. 3:23>-- the first occurrence of the verb. Noah sent forth a raven <Gen. 8:7>. Shalach can also mean to give someone a send off, or "to send" someone on his way in a friendly manner: "...and Abraham went with them to bring them on the way [send them off]" <Gen. 18:16>. In <Deut. 22:19> the word is used of divorcing a wife, or sending her away.

This verb can signify "to get rid of" something: "They bow themselves, they bring forth their young ones, they cast out their [labor pains]" <Job 39:3>. It can also be used of setting a bondservant free: "And when thou sendest him out free from thee, thou shalt not let him go away empty" <Deut. 15:13>. In a less technical sense shalach can mean to release someone held by force. The angel with whom Jacob wrestled said: "Let me go, for the day breaketh" <Gen. 32:26>. Yet another nuance is "to hand someone over," as in <Ps. 81:12>: "So I gave them up unto their own hearts' lust...." Shalach can also mean to set something afire, as in "set the city on fire" <Judg. 1:8>.

In the passive sense the verb has some additional special meanings; in <Prov. 29:15> it means "to be left to oneself": "...but a child left to himself [who gets his own way] bringeth his mother to shame."

B. Nouns.

Mishlach means "outstretching; undertaking." This noun occurs 7 times. The word refers to an "undertaking" in <Deut. 28:8>: "The Lord shall command the blessing upon thee in thy storehouses, and in all that thou settest thine hand unto; and he shall bless thee...." The phrase "that thou settest" embodies the meaning of mishach here (cf. <Deut. 28:20>).

Other nouns are related to shalah. Shilluchim occurs 3 times and means "presents" in the sense of something sent out to or with someone <1 Kings 9:16>. Mishloach is found 3 times and refers to "the act of sending" <Esth. 9:19,22> or "the place hands reach when stretched forth" <Isa. 11:14>, RSV. Shelach means "something sent forth as a missile," and it can refer to a sword or a weapon. Shelach occurs 8 times <2 Chr. 32:5; Job 33:18; Neh. 4:17>. The proper noun shiloah appears in <Isa. 8:6> and refers to a channel through which water is sent forth.

(from Vine's Expository Dictionary of Biblical Words, Copyright (C) 1985, Thomas Nelson Publishers)

A concordance search in the New King James translation identifies 28 verses with the word "divorce" or a derivative of that word wherease the same search in the King James Version reveals only 11 verses with the word "divorce" or a derivative thereof. The remaining 17 verses contain the words "put away" or derivatives thereof. In some verses where "divorce" or it's derivatives occurs the word "put away" or it's derivatives also occurs.

Clearly there is a critical play on words involved in discussing divorce in scripture versus other forms of marital separation or "putting away". It seems quite clear that there are a range of criteria in terms of which divorce is acceptable and a wide range of criteria in terms of which what is called divorce today is NOT divorce but is "putting away" which leads to adultery.

Following are all instances in the NKJ where the word "divorce" or it's derivatives occurs but with the King James Version text substituted. The word/s in the NKJ corresponding to "divorce" and it's derivatives are highlighted.

Leviticus 21:7

7 They shall not take a wife that is a whore, or profane; neither shall they take a woman put away from her husband: for he is holy unto his God. (KJV)

Leviticus 21:14

14 A widow, or a divorced woman, or profane, or an harlot, these shall he not take: but he shall take a virgin of his own people to wife. (KJV)

Leviticus 22:13

13 But if the priest's daughter be a widow, or divorced, and have no child, and is returned unto her father's house, as in her youth, she shall eat of her father's meat: but there shall no stranger eat thereof. (KJV)

Numbers 30:9

9 But every vow of a widow, and of her that is divorced, wherewith they have bound their souls, shall stand against her. (KJV)

Deuteronomy 22:19

19 And they shall amerce him in an hundred shekels of silver, and give them unto the father of the damsel, because he hath brought up an evil name upon a virgin of Israel: and she shall be his wife; he may not put her away all his days. (KJV)

Deuteronomy 22:29

29 Then the man that lay with her shall give unto the damsel's father fifty shekels of silver, and she shall be his wife; because he hath humbled her, he may not put her away all his days. (KJV)

Deuteronomy 24:1

1 When a man hath taken a wife, and married her, and it come to pass that she find no favour in his eyes, because he hath found some uncleanness in her: then let him write her a bill of divorcement, and give it in her hand, and send her out of his house. (KJV)

Deuteronomy 24:3

3 And if the latter husband hate her, and write her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it in her hand, and sendeth her out of his house; or if the latter husband die, which took her to be his wife; (KJV)

Deuteronomy 24:4

4 Her former husband, which sent her away, may not take her again to be his wife, after that she is defiled; for that is abomination before the LORD: and thou shalt not cause the land to sin, which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance. (KJV)

Isaiah 50:1

1 Thus saith the LORD, Where is the bill of your mother's divorcement, whom I have put away? or which of my creditors is it to whom I have sold you? Behold, for your iniquities have ye sold yourselves, and for your transgressions is your mother put away. (KJV)

Jeremiah 3:1

1 They say, If a man put away his wife, and she go from him, and become another man's, shall he return unto her again? shall not that land be greatly polluted? but thou hast played the harlot with many lovers; yet return again to me, saith the LORD. (KJV)

Jeremiah 3:8

8 And I saw, when for all the causes whereby backsliding Israel committed adultery I had put her away, and given her a bill of divorce; yet her treacherous sister Judah feared not, but went and played the harlot also. (KJV)

Ezekial 44:22

22 Neither shall they take for their wives a widow, nor her that is put away: but they shall take maidens of the seed of the house of Israel, or a widow that had a priest before. (KJV)

Malachi 2:16

16 For the LORD, the God of Israel, saith that he hateth putting away: for one covereth violence with his garment, saith the LORD of hosts: therefore take heed to your spirit, that ye deal not treacherously. (KJV)

Matthew 5:31

31 It hath been said, Whosoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorcement: (KJV)

Matthew 5:32

32 But I say unto you, That whosoever shall put away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causeth her to commit adultery: and whosoever shall marry her that is divorced committeth adultery. (KJV)

Matthew 19:3

3 The Pharisees also came unto him, tempting him, and saying unto him, Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause? (KJV)

Matthew 19:7

7 They say unto him, Why did Moses then command to give a writing of divorcement, and to put her away? (KJV)

Matthew 19:8

8 He saith unto them, Moses because of the hardness of your hearts suffered you to put away your wives: but from the beginning it was not so. (KJV)

Matthew 19:9

9 And I say unto you, Whosoever shall put away his wife, except it be for fornication, and shall marry another, committeth adultery: and whoso marrieth her which is put away doth commit adultery. (KJV)

Mark 10:2

2 And the Pharisees came to him, and asked him, Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife? tempting him. (KJV)

Mark 10:4

4 And they said, Moses suffered to write a bill of divorcement, and to put her away. (KJV)

Mark 10:11

11 And he saith unto them, Whosoever shall put away his wife, and marry another, committeth adultery against her. (KJV)

Mark 10:12

12 And if a woman shall put away her husband, and be married to another, she committeth adultery. (KJV)

Luke 16:18

18 Whosoever putteth away his wife, and marrieth another, committeth adultery: and whosoever marrieth her that is put away from her husband committeth adultery. (KJV)

1 Corinthians 7:11

11 But and if she depart, let her remain unmarried, or be reconciled to her husband: and let not the husband put away his wife. (KJV)

1 Corinthians 7:12

12 But to the rest speak I, not the Lord: If any brother hath a wife that believeth not, and she be pleased to dwell with him, let him not put her away. (KJV)

1 Corinthians 7:13

13 And the woman which hath an husband that believeth not, and if he be pleased to dwell with her, let her not leave him. (KJV)




All scriptures containing the Greek word "Porneia", Strong's number 4202. Note that this word encompasses both sexual immorality AND spiritual fornication.

Matt 5:32

32 "But I say to you that whoever divorces his wife for any reason except sexual immorality causes her to commit adultery; and whoever marries a woman who is divorced commits adultery. (NKJ)

Matt 15:19

19 "For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, blasphemies. (NKJ)

Matt 19:9

9 "And I say to you, whoever divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, and marries another, commits adultery; and whoever marries her who is divorced commits adultery." (NKJ)

Mark 7:21

21 "For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders, (NKJ)

John 8:41

41 "You do the deeds of your father." Then they said to Him, "We were not born of fornication; we have one Father-- God." (NKJ)

Acts 15:20

20 "but that we write to them to abstain from things polluted by idols, from sexual immorality, from things strangled, and from blood. (NKJ)

Acts 15:29

29 that you abstain from things offered to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality. If you keep yourselves from these, you will do well. Farewell. (NKJ)

Acts 21:25

25 "But concerning the Gentiles who believe, we have written and decided that they should observe no such thing, except that they should keep themselves from things offered to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality." (NKJ)

1 Cor 5:1

1 It is actually reported that there is sexual immorality among you, and such sexual immorality as is not even named among the Gentiles-- that a man has his father's wife! (NKJ)

1 Cor 5:1

1 It is actually reported that there is sexual immorality among you, and such sexual immorality as is not even named among the Gentiles-- that a man has his father's wife! (NKJ)

1 Cor 6:13

13 Foods for the stomach and the stomach for foods, but God will destroy both it and them. Now the body is not for sexual immorality but for the Lord, and the Lord for the body. (NKJ)

1 Cor 6:18

18 Flee sexual immorality. Every sin that a man does is outside the body, but he who commits sexual immorality sins against his own body. (NKJ)

1 Cor 7:2

2 Nevertheless, because of sexual immorality, let each man have his own wife, and let each woman have her own husband. (NKJ)

2 Cor 12:21

21 lest, when I come again, my God will humble me among you, and I shall mourn for many who have sinned before and have not repented of the uncleanness, fornication, and lewdness which they have practiced. (NKJ)

Gal 5:19

19 Now the works of the flesh are evident, which are: adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lewdness, (NKJ)

Eph 5:3

3 But fornication and all uncleanness or covetousness, let it not even be named among you, as is fitting for saints; (NKJ)

Col 3:5

5 Therefore put to death your members which are on the earth: fornication, uncleanness, passion, evil desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry. (NKJ)

1Thes 4:3

3 For this is the will of God, your sanctification: that you should abstain from sexual immorality; (NKJ)

Rev 2:21

21 "And I gave her time to repent of her sexual immorality, and she did not repent. (NKJ)

Rev 9:21

21 And they did not repent of their murders or their sorceries or their sexual immorality or their thefts. (NKJ)

Rev 14:8

8 And another angel followed, saying, "Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city, because she has made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication." (NKJ)

Rev 17:2

2 "with whom the kings of the earth committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth were made drunk with the wine of her fornication." (NKJ)

Rev 17:4

4 The woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet, and adorned with gold and precious stones and pearls, having in her hand a golden cup full of abominations and the filthiness of her fornication. (NKJ)

Rev 18:3

3 "For all the nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication, the kings of the earth have committed fornication with her, and the merchants of the earth have become rich through the abundance of her luxury." (NKJ)

Rev 19:2

2 "For true and righteous are His judgments, because He has judged the great harlot who corrupted the earth with her fornication; and He has avenged on her the blood of His servants shed by her." (NKJ)











Random Selection of Articles Published on the End Time Issue Ministries Mailing List Since the Day of Atonement 2009

2011.04.18 What is REALLY happening in the world around you? A "good" Christian family headed for hell

A made up story to highlight some of the traps that Christians are falling into

2012.08.03 Believers who beg -- witchcraft

A number of people have asked for money in recent weeks, several of them persistently and insistently, two using charismatic witchcraft to try and manipulate the writer.


This article addresses life by faith and makes it clear that this ministry will NOT help people who beg but only those who Yah indicates should be helped -- something that happens infrequently because funding others is NOT the purpose of this ministry.

2013.10.09 South Africa: Call to Fast and Pray for Repentance and Deliverance

Having given little time to the situation in South Africa for many months I have suddenly been given an urgency for the situation there with particular reference to Yah's call for 100,000 adult believers to assemble at the Voortrekker Monument in Pretoria (as the outward symbol of his covenant with a segment of the believing population) on Monday 16th December 2013 to repent of the sins of the people and the nation and cry out for deliverance

Yah has also said that as many people as possible should embark on seven three day fasts at weekly intervals in the lead up to this meeting in order to prepare the way for repentance and to make sure that the required number of people attend the gathering

The article below gives a detailed set of recommended prayers

See also 

2013.11.02 Hidden Hazards of Halloween

The previous articles regarding Halloween have highlighted the intense evil of the event

This article highlights the demonic baggage and curses associated with the seemingly innocuous pumpkin head, trick or treat, etc and advises readers to have nothing to do with it

Basic prayers for deliverance are provided and those who have been actively involved are advised to seek deliverance ministry

2012.07.06 Deliverance versus Discipline

We wrestle NOT against flesh and blood but against unseen Satanic and demonic forces -- the battle is a battle of the will, of self discipline, of seeking truth and living by it.

It IS important to get delivered of demons BUT we will NOT get delivered UNLESS we exercise discipline to resist them so that they will leave when they are commanded to leave.

2013.10.14 The Truth About Halloween

Most believers are extremely ignorant about Halloween and its evils

Father has impressed on me to locate further information of relevance

The article below provides a historical understanding of this evil day

2013.12.06 Should we Celebrate Christmas?

Father Yah requested that I find three articles that best summarize the issues that believers should consider when deciding whether to observe Christmas or NOT

This is the first article


2011.12.11 Yah's special days for 2012

This article lists Yah's special days for 2012 drawn from the Qodesh publishers calendar a copy of which is available for download


WHY Believe in the Almighty Creator and seek relationship with Him

IF YOU do NOT believe that the Almighty Creator exists and therefore do NOT have a personal relationship with Him you face a terrible fate when you COULD be blessed for eternity

The Creator has said regarding YOU "why would I want someone to spend eternity with me when they do NOT believe I exist?

Please go immediately to the WHY Believe page and give careful consideration to what is presented there

IF you have a DEEP inner conviction of the reality of the Creator, in other words you claim to be a "believer", but you do NOT have a deep personal relationship with Him such that He speaks to you clearly and regularly and you seek His guidance in every area of your life then He has said of you “why would I want someone to be close to me in Heaven, which inherently means I will give them great authority, if they do NOT have a deep personal relationship with me and have NOT proven to me that they can be trusted?”

Please go immediately to the Relationship with Yah page


Dr James Robertson PrEng, emissary and spokesman of Yah, founder of End Time Issue Ministries

Dr James A Robertson is called as an emissary {Apostle} and spokesman {prophet} of Yah, the Almighty Creator and has been set-apart for a number of years writing and publishing what he believes that the Almighty has said to him.

Read more >

Contact James at


An Engineering approach to the matters of the Almighty Creator of the Heavens and the Earth whose true name is Yah the Eternally Self-Existing

By "engineering approach" is meant rigorous, precise, verified, tested, proven, questioning, critical, investigative, scientific, analytical, evolving, improving practical, no nonsense, learn from mistakes, intolerant of sloppiness, realistic, REAL



This site is growing -- Re Blank Pages

As the site grows we from time to time add blocks of new pages which may NOT contain content for a while -- please accept my apologies for the inconvenience, you may find the information you require elsewhere on the site, alternatively email me for the information you are seeking
Note that words in curly brackets {} are words that although they are in common use are inaccurate in terms of the matters of the Almighty and should therefore be avoided

The Almighty Creator, Yah the Eternally Self-Existing, says: "It is time to choose -- will you be my friend, or my foe? -- there is NO middle ground!"

Yah says further:

"Ultimately THE AIM of this entire experiment is to find those who will make the sacrifices necessary to become My FRIENDS -- NOTHING is more important"
"A friend is one who is concerned about the well-being of the one they call friend and desires to treat that person as they would be treated -- HOW do you choose to treat Me?"
"True friendship is about what you can GIVE -- NOT what you can GET! -- what are YOU prepared to give Me (Yah)?"
"A true friend seeks to know ALL truth about the one whom they call friend AND to help others to know that truth -- Do YOU know the truth about me? Do YOU care?"
"In this age I (Yah) am MASSIVELY CONSTRAINED by the 'Rules of Engagement' in terms of what I can say and do EXCEPT through those true friends and true servants who will do the necessary work to KNOW my will AND proclaim it AND action it"
"There is NO greater love than that a man should lay down his life for his friend! -- Will YOU lay down your life for Me?"
"Technically a martyr is one who lays down their life for Me, NOT necessarily in physical death but also by sacrificing their comfort and well being in favour of doing MY will -- will you do ALL that it takes to serve Me and love Me as your friend, NO MATTER what it costs you? -- Will you be a martyr for Me by your way of living?"
"My true friends take time to spend quality time with Me daily and communicate with Me and consult Me constantly"
"Why Believe?
"Because if you do NOT you WILL find that when you die you are forced to serve and worship Satan for ever or at least until the day the winner of the 'The Contest' is adjudicated
"Realize that serving Satan after you die could be a really HORRIBLE experience, particularly IF you regard yourself as a GOOD person!"
"Imagine what it will be like as an ancestor spirit (demon) knowing the truth about the lies you believed and watching your loved ones making the same mistakes and believing the same lies that you believed and being unable to do anything about it!"
"Imagine what it will be like when you discover that you are irrevocably locked into the same dispensation that is behind the most barbaric and savage cultures on earth"
"IF you are a 'GOOD' person: when you die you may find yourself secretly hoping that Satan WILL lose 'The Contest' so that you can be cast into the Lake of Fire and utterly consumed in a moment of torment and terror, rather than being a participant in the progressive degradation of the human race into utter depravity, barbarism and perversion! -- and yet you will be POWERLESS to do anything about it!"
"The consequences of dying without a PROFOUND realization of my (Yah's) existence AND a DEEP life changing decision to serve Me is too ghastly to contemplate IF you take the trouble to REALLY understand the truth about the world you live in!"
"Imagine what it will be like to be a demon (ancestor spirit) riding on your favourite grandchild and watching them participate in the same empty rituals and mouthing the same meaningless platitudes that you practised during your life and being UNABLE to warn them of the terrible destiny that they are locking themselves into!"
"A person who reaches the end of their life as my TRUE FRIEND, one who has progressed from 'Wise Steward', to 'Good and Faithful Servant', to 'Overcomer' and ultimately to 'Friend' will receive rewards and authority of unimaginable splendour including a high throne, status and apparel that is far beyond anything that even the most powerful rulers on earth have ever dreamed of, let alone experienced -- contrast this with the other extreme -- an angry and depraved ancestor spirit (demon) desperately seeking favour in a kingdom where favour is a lesser level of torment and the right to exercise greater control and depravity over those less inclined to serve Satan and his Masterminds  wholeheartedly"
"Do YOU REALLY want to be part of a kingdom where the tortured murder of infants is regarded as one of the highest privileges of rank?"
"The evidence is ALL around you IF you have eyes to see -- the choice is CLEAR -- a Kingdom of beauty, love (chesed) and benign power or a kingdom of atrocities and perversion, a kingdom that regards torture and tormented and protracted death of human sacrifices followed by cannibalism, preferably while the victim still lives, as the HIGHEST form of worship?"
"It is TIME for those who still have some smattering of knowledge of me and my ways to STOP playing games with Satan and start taking back this earth while there is STILL TIME -- it is time for believers to STOP marrying unbelievers and allowing their children to marry unbelievers,, it is TIME to STOP marrying those from Satan worshipping cultures, and to STOP welcoming them into your homes, your cities and your lands -- it is time to STOP acceding to Satanic demands that you cast ME (The Almighty) out of your schools, your halls of Government and your workplaces -- it is TIME to publicly open the day with worship and prayer to me, whether in your places of education, your places of Government or your places of work -- it is TIME to cast out those who will NOT comply instead of being cast out and secretively serving me behind locked doors and, IF you CANNOT set apart that place of learning, or government or work then EXIT PUBLICLY and DECLARE your reasons and gather together with those who WILL agree with you in these matters for it is so that in the spirit one TRUE believer FREE OF SIN can put 1,000 to flight and two can put 10,000 to flight and the power of TRUE BELIEVERS who choose to deal with ALL their sin and live in ALL truth is such that massive transformation IS possible -- note the impact of Noah, Abraham, Moshe {Moses}, Yahooshua {Jesus}, Mohammed and Luther -- YOU TOO can bring about RADICAL reformation and renaissance IF you will lay down your life and seek DEEP and ENDURING FRIENDSHIP with Me!"
"IF you believe, it is TIME to assess exactly WHAT you believe about me and then ACT accordingly!"
"IF you do NOT believe, it is time to assess EXACTLY what you DO believe and then act accordingly!"
"There is NO place for fence sitters -- YOU are either FOR me or by default you are AGAINST ME!"
"Know this -- IF you choose to be a TRUE friend, which means you deal with ALL sin and ALL error and do ALL that is required to ensure that your house is FULLY united behind you the forces of darkness CANNOT TOUCH YOU -- BUT, IF you play games and continue to dabble in your favourite sins and errors in your divided house the forces of darkness will TEAR you limb from limb and UTTERLY destroy you -- there has NEVER been a time in all the history of man on earth where life above sin and total unity of your house has been more important!"
"IF you choose to serve ME (Yah), understand that you are choosing a VERY strait and VERY narrow path leading to a VERY small door -- gird your loins and FOLLOW the example of the mighty set-apart ones of previous generations!"

Footnote: ALL the above references to "friend" relate to people like you and me seeking to become true friends of Yah, the Almighty Creator

About names, words, etc

The majority of visitors to this site will encounter names and words they are NOT familiar with

It is a harsh reality that the true Name of the Almighty Creator of the Heavens and the Earth whose true Name is "Yah the eternally self-existing" has been concealed as have all the important names, laws, commandments, principles and concepts

What is taught by the "Christian" church is almost entirely incorrect as is the case with EVERY religion

This website seeks to present these truths for your prayerful consideration and adoption -- see the prayers elsewhere in this side bar for more information on what to pray

Key names and words that are used throughout this site and which are fundamentally important are:

The true Name of the Almighty Creator is "Yah the eternally self-existing", frequently translated as "Yahweh", more accurately "Yahooeh"

The name of the man commonly known as "Jesus" is "Yahooshua" meaning "Yah is salvation"

The commonly used names of "God", "The LORD", "Christ", "Jesus" are ALL of pagan, that is Satanic origin and the Almighty has only responded to these names as an act of Grace, this Grace has now been withdrawn



Business Interests -- James A Robertson and Associates -- The Business Systems Doctor

In addition to this ministry I operate a management consulting business specializing in the strategic application of computer based business information systems - a business in which Father has taught me many leading edge concepts, principles and methods


My logo is based on Professor Malcolm McDonald's strategy -- tactics matrix -- strategy, doing the right things horizontally and tactics, doing things right on the vertical axis -- if your organization does the right things well, it will thrive -- top right quadrant -- this is a fundamental principles when it comes to the matters of the Almighty as well

In my consulting work I seek to enable my clients to do the right things well

I regard Father as my partner, Chairman, counselor and I seek to conduct business in a way that is pleasing to Him, within the context of prayer that He will judge me severely and correct me harshly that I may serve Him more perfectly


I truly believe that Father has given me extremely high value knowledge and experience which will enable your organization, be it commercial, governmental or non-governmental to be more effective and efficient in its operations and, IF profit is your measuring stick, more profitable



I am based in London, United Kingdom and can be contacted for business purposes on

About the articles on this site

Most articles on this site are classified with a reference number comprising the year, the month and a sequence number within the month, thus 2013.12.03 is the third article published in December 2013

Most detailed webpages are organized with the most recent articles at the top and the Article List displays with the most recent articles at the top.  Searches on the articles list in the same way

Because I am constantly learning, newer articles will almost certainly be an elaboration or refinement of earlier articles and in some cases may significantly revise what I said in earlier articles, in most cases the later article is likely to be more accurate than earlier articles

In ALL cases Father Yah forbids me to go back and edit or correct articles, He wants YOU to have a close personal relationship with Him and therefore to turn to Him for clarification where things that I write contradict or appear to contradict one another

The articles from 2009 onwards are generally much more reliable than those earlier but there are important articles from the earlier days as well, in particular, the articles written in 2000 onwards were written during a period when my understanding was being radically changed on a very intense basis and when I was also getting closer to the Almighty at a very rapid rate

Accordingly the early articles should be given appropriate prayer, particularly if the later articles contradict or appear to contradict what is written in the early articles

That said Father Yah has said that there is much of value in the earlier articles and that they should, accordingly, remain on the site

Third Party Articles

This site includes some articles from third parties

In such cases Father Yah forbids me to censor, edit or correct such articles but requires me to present them in their entirety with little or no comment, as with the previous point He requires YOU to research and pray and reach your own conclusion regarding what is truth

Inclusion of third party articles does NOT indicate any form of endorsement of the person who wrote the article other than that it is my understanding that the article contains information of importance.  Such inclusion also does NOT imply any endorsement of this ministry by the person whose work is cited

It is up to each one of us to discern the truth for ourselves See the article on Seek Truth NOT Error for more information

Content you do NOT agree with

It is probable that you will find material on this site that you do NOT agree with, there is much that is highly controversial, click HERE for an article that proposes a way of responding to such differences

See also article -- Getting close to Yah -- Appropriate prayer and fasting are VITAL -- the answer to doctrinal differences


Important prayers to pray IF you believe that the Almighty Creator exists

IF you believe that the Almighty Creator exists then take note that He has said of YOU why would I want someone to be close to me in Heaven, which inherently means I will give them great authority, if they do NOT have a deep personal relationship with me and have NOT proven to me that they can be trusted?

IF you believe that the Almighty Creator DOES exist the following are amongst the most important prayers you can pray

Note that the true name of the Almighty Creator is "Yah the eternally self-existing" NOT "The LORD" or "God"

Father Yah, I ask you to help me to overcome to the end that I may be found to  be a "good and faithful servant" on the Day of Judgment

Father Yah I ask you to show me the level of my present deception and how to correct it

Father Yah I ask you to help me to draw MUCH closer to you and to know your will and to do it

Father Yah I ask you to fill me with your Spirit and lead me into ALL truth by your Spirit

Father Yah I give you my life to do with as YOU see fit

Father Yah I ask you to bring the people that YOU want into my life and to take the people that you do NOT want in my life out

Father Yah I ask you to open the doors in my life that YOU want open and to close the doors in my life that YOU want closed

Father Yah I ask you to judge me severely and correct me harshly that I may serve you more perfectly

There are many other prayers that you can pray but these are amongst the most important

See also the page on developing a close relationship with the Almighty at


Consolidated Volumes of Articles

We are in the process of assembling the articles on this site into annual volumes based on the lunar based cycles prescribed by the Almighty, the following volumes are currently available in Adobe pdf format

The full list of articles is available on the Articles page and also on the listing in this side bar

The documents are formatted for double sided printing

Vol 10 year 6006 from Creation: 29 Mar 2009 to 18 Mar 2010
Vol11 year 6007 from Creation: 18 Mar 2010 to 6 Apr 2011
 The documents are also available in Microsoft Word docx format on the detailed article listing in the side bar
Download the entire website in a format that you can run standalone on your computer with NO Internet connection and keep for future reference
From time to time we make a copy of the entire website in a format that you can download and run standalone on a local computer with NO Internet Connection, the file is about 6 GB in size and requires WinZip to open, click here to download

Articles on this site from 2009 to December 2013


The Creator Desires a Deep Relationship with YOU

Seven Components in Growing Close to Yah

Recommended Worship

Where will YOU Spend Eternity?

WHY Believe in the Almighty Creator and seek relationship with Him

What Actually Happens when someome comes to believe

The First Eight Days after first believing in the Creator

Triple Immersion as a powerful means of cleansing

Fasting as a vital component of being a believer

Worship is essential in drawing close to the Almighty

What to Read once you have come to belief

The First Year after coming to belief

Those who come to limited belief initially

Those who come to limited belief initially

The TRUE Name of the Creator is Yah the Eternally Self-Existing

The TRUE Names of the Almighty in the Bible -- Detailed Analysis -- Abstract

Objective, Technical Notes And Technical Caveat

Words Translated "God"

Names Including Yah

Further Words Which Refer To Yah

Names Including Yah

Additional Words Which Relate To Yah

Instances Of Jehovah And Jah = Yah In The Hebrew Lexicon Of The Online Bible

Instances Of Yah In The Hebrew Lexicon Of The Online Bible

Closure Regarding The Name Of Yah

This website is the culmination of applying Engineering Principles to the matters of the Almighty Creator since 1993

Yah, the Creator, desires to have deep personal relationships with people who become His friends

Creator Desires Deep Relationship

7 Components of Growing Close to Yah

Recommended Worship

Where will YOU Spend Eternity?


About James Robertson -- An engineering approach to religion and knowledge of the Most High Creator of the Heavens and the Earth, Yah the eternally self-existing

Headlines of the walk of James Robertson with the Almighty Creator (Yah the Eternally Self-Existing)

About End Time Issue Ministries

James Robertson's Business interests -- James A Robertson and Associates Limited -- Executive Level Consulting with Regard to the Effective High Value Application of Business Information Systems

What to do if you disagree with me

Our Logo

Building a close relationship with Yah the Eternally Self Existing, the Almighty Creator

Key Principles with regard to relationship with Yah

Why are we here?

Stages in the Relationship with the Almighty Creator

The Anointing of the Spirit of the Almighty

Worship of the Almighty

Prayer and petition to the Almighty

Prayer in agreement

Fasting as a vital component of drawing close to the Almighty

Hearing Yah

Judge me Severely and correct me harshly

Yah's Emotions -- He has feelings too

Daddy Yah is LONELY please talk to Him and use His true Name

Did YOU bring JOY to your Daddy Today?

Seeking to live a Life WITHOUT Sin

Overcoming and a High Throne

The Continuum between Yah and Satan

Drawing Closer to Yah

Drawing Close to Yah

Chesed = Covenant Love

Yah's Still Small Voice

Visions and Dreams

What IS Inspiration?

If Yah is moving Hold your Peace

The Authority of Believers

Obedience is a vital element of relationship

If you love Yah keep His commandments

You are NOT a glove puppet you ARE accountable

Sacrifice -- The Death of the Stake

Death with Yahooshua

Further Principles relating to Relationship with Yah

Who to Listen To

Even the highly anointed are falling away

Yah is everywhere

Relationship with Yah NOT worship of intellect

The Majority is ALWAYS Wrong

Specific Messages from the Almighty

Yah speaks to James

Yah speaks to the Church

Yah speaks to Believers Generally

Yah speaks to South Africa

Yah speaks to the World

Yah calls His Servants NOT Man

Yah works through His anointed ones

What IS Inspiration?

The Seventy Facets of Yah's Jewelled Words

A Guide to Receiving Personal Prophecy

Seek Truth

Seek Truth NOT Error

Yah's Commandments are BEST

Important Truths

Satan's Most Effective Lies

Pastors and the Church

The Contest

Rules of Engagement

Yah HAS to work through sons of Adam

Satan HAS to work through sons of Adam

The Forces of Darkness Rule on Earth and Yah is Constrained to act through believers

The REAL battle is between the highly anointed versus the highly illuminated ones

Descent into ALL Error

Yahooshua led a Life without Sin

Satan to the Pit

Recovering Lost Truth

A Son of Adam on the Last Day

IF Satan Wins the Contest

IF Satan Loses

Who ARE "Demons"

The Masterminds

Illuminated versus Anointed

Satan's Devices

Combat in the Heavenly Realm

Yah could do MUCH more in earlier years

All authority and dominion on earth has been given to humans, Yah and Satan are constrained to act through them


What IS Hell?

Why IS Hell?

Visits to Hell

Korean Artist

Bill Weise

Angelica Zambrano

Choo Thomas

No one is intentionally going to hell

There are good decent people in hell

Satan rules the world through the leadership of Demonic Masterminds and human Satan Servants

Satan to Pit 2003


Recommended Worship


Important Prayers

The Most Important Prayers


What IS Covenant?

The Blood of a Covenant Means Death to the Person who breaks the Covenant

Covenant between Man and Woman

Tattoos and Piercings


The Importance of Words

Words that Kill

Words that Bring Life

Right Confession

Words with Pagan / Satanic Impact

Words are Spiritual


Take Care is a Curse




The Bible

What to Read Instead

Old Testament versus New Testament

"The WORD" is Semantic Nonsense

The bible is the most pervasive idol

Diverse Articles relevant to the discussion about the Bible

The Essence of the issues relating to the Bible

Positive aspects of “The Bible”

Summing up re “The Bible”

About the Bible

The Arrogance of Christian Ignorance

Relationship with the Almighty NOT Worship of Intellect

Getting close to Yah Appropriate prayer and fasting are VITAL (the answer to doctrinal differences)

IF the Bible IS corrupt then WHAT do I do?

Satan’s Lies – Response to Rebuttal

“The bible is a corrupt book compiled by corrupt men”

The Majority is ALWAYS Wrong

Further Articles relevant to the discussion about the Bible -- Section 2

Bible study versus deep relationship

Demonically inspired bible versions -- rebuttal

Demonically inspired bible versions

Believers who abdicate their intellect

Your Heavenly Account

The contents of the bible are but a pin prick in the history of mankind

Clarification re THE WORD

New Testament? No No No

Further Articles relevant to the discussion about the Bible -- Section 3

Yah is at SOME measure in EVERY book (and so is Satan through his demons)

Clarification -- there IS good in the bible

The King James Version of the bible is NOT THE definitive English translation

Yah works through His anointed prophets NOT committees

The origin of the Christian bible

Those who followed Yahooshua did NOT know Torah

What IS inspiration?

The seventy facets of Yah's jeweled words

Further Articles relevant to the discussion about the Bible -- Section 4

The bible IS a useful reference work – period

Covenant – NOT New Testament

James: What do YOU believe about the bible? REALLY?

Pastors – the Prison Warders of Yah's people

Why Yah could do much greater works thousands of years ago (level of anointing and level of prayer)

Proof of a Global Flood -- Turning history on its head

Where will YOU spend eternity?

Are visions precise and free of error?

Understanding Satan's devices

Clergy versus laity

The Name of Yah in the book {bible}

The TRUE Names of the Almighty in the Bible -- Summary

What is the origin and the purpose of man? -- creation versus evolution

Older Articles -- Prior to 2009

Conclusion -- The Bible is NOT what is claimed for it

Yah (The Almighty) says that the bible is "the Greatest Idol" on earth today

Anointed Life

Anointed Life Part 1

What or Who IS an Anointed One?

Worship is Critical

Filled with the Spirit of Yah

Led by the Spirit of Yah

Guardian Messengers {Angels}


Death with Yahooshua

The Mind of Yah



Supply of Needs

Poverty in the Body of Believers

Anointed Life Part 2

Power Anointing

In the World NOT OF the World

Yah is everywhere

The Race

The Armour

Trust and Belief


Your Heavenly Account


Anointed Life Part 3

Good and Faithful Servant


Angelo beggar on a high throne

Authority of Believer

Works that Yahooshua did



Immersion NOT Baptism

Tearing Down Strongholds

The Battle

Spiritual Warfare

The 144,000

Single Anointed Women

Anointed Life Part 4









Let your Yes be Yes


Judge me Severely and correct me Harshly that I may serve You more perfectly

Seek Truth NOT Error

Anointed Life Part 5

Man and Woman in Harmony


Right Confession

Four phases of the Wilderness

Critical Success Factors for Life

Highly Anointed Ones Make Mistakes and Sin

Even the highly anointed are falling away



Body Mind and Spirit


Believe in Yah the Eternally Self-Existing, the Almighty

Chesed {love} the Almighty with all your heart, mind, soul and strength

Yah is ONE

Who IS Yah?

Who IS Yahooshua?

Who IS Satan?

Demonic "gods"

No Trinity

NO Idols

Not Worship the Bible

Not Worship Jesus

Not Worship Cross

Not Worship People

Not Worship Things

Name Yah NOT in Vain


Yes in Afrikaans and German

True Names

Keep Sabbaths

Day Begins at Sunrise

True Sabbath Saturday Sunrise

New Moons

1st Aviv

Pesach -- Passover

Shavuot -- Pentecost

Yom Teruah -- Day of Trumpets

Yom Kippur -- Day of Atonement

Sukkot -- Tabernacles 1st Day

Sukkot -- Tabernacles Great Day

False Sabbaths

Levites BREAK the Sabbath

Chesed {love} your Neighbor as yourself

Honor Parents


Curse Mother or Father and Die

NOT Old Age Homes

NO Murder

NO Abortion

NO Abortive Contraception

Death Penalty for Murder

WHY Death Penalty?

NO False Teachings

Anal intercourse is valid birth control

NO Adultery

What IS Adultery?

Breaking Covenant / Treachery


Male with Male

Female with Female


Serial Polygamy



Chick Flicks are Pornography TOO


Phone / Skype Sex

Oral and Anal Sex

Church Marriage

False Monogamy

NO Stealing

Most Prosperity Teaching is Fraud

Fraudulent Contracts

Misrepresentation in Sales

Outright Theft


NO False Witness or Lying

False Teaching by Church

False Teaching in Other Religions

Misrepresentation in Sales

White Lies

ALL Liars will burn

Believe Lies and Die

NO Coveting or Lusting



Most Adverts

Valentines Heart

Lust is visible in the spirit realm

The MARK of the Beast

All of the 10 Commandments as well as the Principal Commandment have been almost universally broken and made of NO effect

The Satanic

The Satanic Part 1

Who is Satan

Fallen Messenger

Principalities, Powers, Thrones, Dominions, etc

We wrestle NOT against flesh and blood

Combat in the Heavenly Realm

The Forces of Darkness Reign and Yah is constrained to act through believers

Illuminated Ones



Ancestor Spirits {Demons}


If Jesus is living in your heart you have a problem

The Satanic Part 2


Take Care is a Curse

Secret Societies

Free Masonry

The Authority of the Believer


Satan's Most Effective Lies

Lilith Adam's first wife

The Satanic Part 3

Treachery is a Spiritual Force

The Peace of Satan

Fear is Faith in the Satanic

Tsunami of Evil Covers the Planet

Satans Devices

What is REALLY happening

Satan sentenced to one thousand years in the Pit on 3 May 2003

Power from drinking blood

Power from eating human flesh

Power from murder

Satanic Dominion

General Satanic

True Names




Mighty One


My Darling Mighty One


Anointing of Yah


Other True Names

The TRUE name of the prophet from Nazareth is "Yahooshua" NOT "Jesus"

Blasphemous Names

Grace withdrawn






Other Incorrect Names



NOT Christ

True Sabbaths

Day Begins at Sunrise

True Sabbath Saturday Sunrise

New Moons

1st Aviv

Pesach -- Passover

Shavuot -- Pentecost

Yom Teruah -- Day of Trumpets

Yom Kippur -- Day of Atonement

Sukkot -- Tabernacles 1st Day

Sukkot Great Day

Year of Jubilee

Saturday is the 7th day of the week and is Yah's true weekly Sabbath

Satanic Feasts



On what day was Yahooshua born?


New Year

Valentine's Day

Other Satanic Feasts

Sunday Sabbath

Sunday is the Pagan day of the Sun god and is NOT appropriate for worshipping Yah, the Almighty Creator

Christmas is a Pagan Feast and is an abomination in the sight of the Almighty Creator

Yahooshua died on a Stake NOT a Cross

It is NOT Baptism it is Immersion

The Coninuum between Good and Evil


True Religion

The Great Falling Away

Even the highly anointed are falling away

Seek Truth NOT Error

The End of the Age



Most Christians are NOT Anointed Ones

The Church put Yahooshua to Death

If Jesus is living in your heart you have a problem

Clergy versus Laity

Judgement on the church of Jesus Christ

Planet X Nibiru


Believers who Beg

History Revisited

This Evil Generation

Christian Denominations

Roman Catholic


Jehovah's Witnesses




Who IS Allah

Other Religions

The Inquisitions have had a major impact on believers today

The upsurge of civilization following the Reformation, that is the Renaissance, masks the long term degradation of human beings over time

The turnaround prophets of history are Noah, Moshe, Yahooshua, Mohammed and Luther -- we need to understand their role to understand the world today

The True Religion of the Almighty Creator, Yah, is a synthesis of, and bracketed by, Judaism, Christianity and Islam

Christianity has from the outset compromized with paganism and almost every doctrine of Christianity is fatally corrupt and does NOT define the Creator

Tithes are Invalid in this age

Judaism is one of the three main religions serving the Creator

Islam is the third of the main religions serving the Creator


Yahooshua Part 1

Who IS Yahooshua

Yahooshua IS the mightiest CREATED being in the entire creation

Yahooshua was an OLD Testament Prophet

How DID Yahooshua Accomplish what he did?

Thank Yah that the Jews Killed Jesus

Why Yahooshua HAD to die THAT way

Father forgive them they do not know what they are doing

My Darling why have You forsaken me?

The Covenant of Yahooshua

As oft as you eat it in remembrance of Yahooshua

Death with Yahooshua

Yahooshua Part 2

Yahooshua is WAITING for his enemies to be made his footstool

What IS special about Yahooshua?

Yahooshua will return once the true message has been preached to ALL the earth

The Church put Yahooshua to Death

Authority IN the Name of Yahooshua

LIMITATIONS in the Name of Yahooshua

The Blood of the Covenant

Who Yahooshua is NOT

Old Testament versus New Testament

On what day was Yahooshua born?

Those who followed Yahooshua did NOT know Torah

Greater Works than Yahooshua did

There is NO Trinity

Yahooshua is NOT the ONLY way

The man Yahooshua, commonly called Jesus was and is a human being and is NOT the Creator

Yahooshua, commonly called "Jesus" will only return around 3003 and is NOT "coming soon"

The Great Falling Away is right now


Judgment in THIS Life

Judgment of Believers Who Die

Judgment of Unbelievers Who Die

The Day of Judgment

High Throne with Yahooshua

The Outer Darkness in Heaven

The Foolish Virgins in Heaven

The Lake of Fire and Brimstone

Satan to the Pit for a Thousand Years

Judgement on the church of Jesus Christ

Judgment at the End of the Age

Yahooshua is WAITING UNTIL his enemies are made his FOOTSTOOL

Yahooshua will return when the true message has been preached to ALL the world

No one is intentionally going to Hell

Few people are intending to become demons

Obedience as a Basis of Judgement

Judgment THIS Life





Judge me Severely and Correct me Harshly that I may serve You more Perfectly

Believing Men in Lack

Highly anointed ones also make mistakes and sin


Burn for Eternity Yes? or No?

Where will YOU Spend Eternity?

Part 1 of the eBook -- Where will YOU Spend Eternity?

A Critical Question

An Important Caveat

Where will YOU Spend Eternity?

A Vital question: Do we know what sin is? - What is the essence of Judgment?

Cause for Concern - Nearly ALL of mankind is breaking most of the commandments

Part 2 of the eBook -- Where will YOU Spend Eternity?

Is there an alternative? -- can one aspire to a High Throne?

It is NOT just heaven or the lake of fire, there is a continuum

It IS POSSIBLE to overcome

What indicators are there about pleasing the Almighty?

How do we overcome? What is the Price?

Some challenging passages from The Final Quest

Joyner's experience of the Judgment


The Final Quest by Rick Joyner

Yah speaks on Rick Joyner

The Call by Rick Joyner

Critical Success Factors for Life

Creation versus Evolution -- What is the Origin and Purpose of Man?

Engineered Creation

Sexual reproduction proves there is a Creator

Part 1 of the book What is the origin and purpose of man


An important assumption and some painful deductions

Some important preparatory points

Use of statistics from

Argument from Incredulity

Progressive development versus Instantaneous Creation

Other religions and spirits

Some other issues with certain religious views of creation

What next?

Part 2 of the book What is the origin and purpose of man


Does this mean deadlock?

A Different approach?

Some issues that arise from the above questions

Science - Engineering - Religion


Suggested principles for further analysis

"Planned (Engineered) Creative Evolution" versus "Unplanned (Unengineered) Spontaneous Evolution"

Part 3 of the book What is the origin and purpose of man

Evidence in Immediate Physical Environment

Tying up loose ends

Various bits and pieces

Some other considerations regarding creation versus evolution

Soft attributes of human beings

 If all else fails, ask for a "sign"?



The World Before the Flood

The Flood Itself

The World After the Flood

Understanding the Impact of the Flood

Why Millions of Years is Invalid

Flood Videos

Overview of the Flood Videos

Section 1 -- Proof of a Global Flood -- Introduction

Section 2: Gold Mines -- Evidence of Massive Hydraulic Flood Action

Section 3: Layered Sedimentary Rocks -- Evidence of a Global Flood

Section 4: The Halfwayhouse Granite Dome -- Massive Surface Disruption

Section 5: African Erosion Surface -- massive flood cutting action

Section 6: Incised Valley deep in massive Granite -- evidence of massive flood action

Section 7: The REAL Age of all this - a flood as recently as 4,500 years ago?

Section 8: Signs Of Judgment -- Real Mount Sinai and Ten Commandments

Section 9: Where DID the water came from? And where did it go? -- Proof of a Global Flood

Section 10: Summing Up -- Proof of a Global Flood

Section 11: End Notes -- Proof of Global Flood

There is global proof of a global catastrophe which is FAR beyond a "flood"

Evolutionary Creation is the ONLY practical explanation of what exists today


The Spiritual Nature of Sex

Yah Created Sex and it was good

The Virgins Covenant

Sex is a Covenant Act

The One-Flesh Bond

Making Love

Transfer of Demons

Soul Ties


Role of Man

Role of Woman

Monogamy and sexual lovemaking

The Bed is Undefiled

The Joy of Sex

Sex -- Permitted and Prohibited

"Sex Before Marriage"

One Night Stands

Men with Men

Women with Women

Anal Sex

Oral Sex




Sexual Thoughts


Spiritual Separation of Man and Woman

Coping with Sexual Need

The Virgin's Covenant is CRITICAL to understand sex, marriage, adultery and divorce

Men & Women

Men and Women and covenant

The Virgins Covenant

Age to Marry



Cleave is NOT Adhere

Isaiah 4:1

Men and Women and Family


Separation of Man and Woman







Is Polygamy Scriptural?



The Book -- The Scriptural Definition of Marriage, Adultery and Divorce

Preamble and Table of Contents

1: Introduction & Concepts

2: How does scripture define the marriage covenant?

3: What does scripture say about adultery?

4: Scriptural Divorce

5: Is monogamy scriptural?

6: Some other scriptures on marriage issues

7: The Tradition of the Elders and Other heresies

8: Consequences of the Heresy of Monogamy and Related false Doctrines

9: Summary and Conclusion

Appendices A to G

Appendices H to P

Appendices Q to V

Appendices W to Index of Key words

Man and Woman in Harmony

Marriage Strategy

Marriage Teachings

Part 1: The Coming Tribulation

Part 1: The Coming Tribulation


Part 3: Scriptural definition of Marriage, Divorce & Adultery

Part 4: Towards Heaven on Earth in Marriage

Part 5: Practical Application of Marriage Teachings

Part 6: Deliverance

Part 7. Conclusion

The Almighty designed us from the beginning such that one man can covenant with more than one woman, this is evidenced by the seal of virginity

There are seven times as many believing women as men on earth today so most need to remain celibate and single

The Responsibility of Believing men towards single believing women

A Letter to a Single Woman

The need of Single Women for Companionship

The impact of Wild Oats (children from casual sex) on the world today

The truth about Divorce



Yahs Commandments

Contest or Compromise

The Mark of the Beast

This Life


ALL are Seed of Noah

Nearly ALL alive on earth today are Seed of Abraham

Most of those alive today are Seed of Yisrael





Yahoodah {Judah}










Middle East


Babylon / Iraq


United Kingdom

Rest of Europe

North America


Central America and Bahamas

South America




The Curse of Canaan

South Africa


Rest of Africa

The Majority is Always Wrong


Yahoodite = Jew

Thank Yah that the Jews Killed Jesus

The Jews are Yisraelites and NOT Khazars

The Jews are Yisraelites and NOT Seed of Satan

Jews are NOT Ominipotent

Blessed for Relative Faithfulness


The Colour of a Person Tells Nothing About Their Bloodline

The Hammite African Spiritual Dispensation

The Curse of Canaan on many Africans


World Trade Center Demolition

New World Order etc

Do NOT Concern yourself with Conspiracy

Y2K (The Year 2000 Computer Fear) -- What WAS it? -- an immature believes conspiracy theory

The REAL Conspiracy



Annual Volumes





Articles Emailed

Creator Desires a Deep Personal Relationship with YOU

Seven Components of Drawing Close to the Almighty

Where will YOU Spend Eternity?

6010 (2013/4)

6011 (2014/5)

Particularly Important Articles and other Resources

Insights that I have gained into various topics from day to day

Table of Contents of the body of the Website

Articles to 2009 (6005)


List of Articles from 2009

Article Keyword Cloud

Article Categories

Contact Us


The REAL Contest

What IF Satan WINS?

Satanic Dominion

Where are YOU headed for Eternity?

What should YOU do about the direction of your life today?

The ULTIMATE GOAL -- deep personal friendship with the Almighty Creator of the Heavens and the Earth

The ULTIMATE SIN -- unbelief -- believing the Almighty Creator does NOT exist -- by default allegiance to Satan

The TRAP to prevent you achieving the goal of deep personal relationship with the Creator -- Jesus, the Bible, the Church and Pastors and other people

If you have questions